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FIFTY-SIXTH 

m 

ANNUAL REPORT 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY; 



WITH THE 



MINDTES OF THE ANNUAL MEETING 



AND OF THE 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS, 



January 21 and 22, 1873. 



WASHINGTON CITY: 

Colonization Buildinq, 4.10 Pennsylvania Avenue. 

1873. 



\ctr§ of th$ ^ocietth 



President. 
1853. Hon. John H. B. Latrobe. 



Vice Presidents. 



1S33. 
1838. 
1838. 
1838. 
1838. 
1840. 
1840. 
1841. 
1843. 
1845. 
1845. 
1848. 
1849. 
1849. 
1851. 
1851. 
1853. 
1853. 
1853. 
1853. 
1854. 
1854. 
1854. 
1854. 
1854. 



Moses Allen, Esq., New York. 
Hon. Henry A. Foster, New York. 
Robert Campbell, Esq., Georgia. 
Hon. Peter D. Vroom, New Jersey. 
Hon. James Garland, Virginia. 
Hon. Willard Hall, Delaware. 
Gerard Ralston, Esq., England. 
Thomas R. Hazard, Esq., R. I. 
Hon. Lucius Q. C. Elmer, N. J. 
Rt. Rev. C. P. Mellvaine, D. D., O. 
Hon. Joseph R. Underwood, Ky. 
Hon. Thomas W. Williams, Conn. 
Rev. John Early, D. D., Virginia. 
Rev. Lovick Pierce, D. D., Georgia. 
Rev. Robert Ryland, D. D., Ky. 
Hon. Frederick P. Stanton, D. C. 
Hon. Horatio Seymour, New York. 
Rev. Howard Malcom, D. D., Penn. 
Rev. John P. Durbin, D. D., N. Y. 



1854. Rev. Edward R. Ames, D. D., Md. 
1854. Rev. James S. C. Finley, Illinois. 
1854. Hon. John F. Darby, Missouri. 
1854. Rev. Nathan L. Rice, D. D., Missouri. 
1854. Hon. Joseph B. Crockett, California. 
1857. Richard Hoff, Esq., Georgia. 
1859. Hon. Henry M. Schieffelin, N. Y. 
1861. Rev. John Maclean, D. D., LL.D., N. J. 
1861. Hon. Ichabod Goodwin, N. H. 

1861. Hon. William E. Dodge, New York. 

1862. Robert H. Ives, Esq., Rhode Island. 
1862. Rev. Thomas DeWitt, D. D., N. Y. 

1866. Hon. James R. Doolittle, Wisconsin. 

1867. Samuel A. Crozer, Esq., Pennsylvania. 
1869. Hon. William C. Alexander, N. J. 
1869. Hon. Fred. T. Frelinghuysen, N. J. 
1869. Rev. S. Irenseus Prime, D. D., N. Y. 
1809. Rev. Benj. I. Haight, D. D., N. Y. 



1869. James B. Hosmer, Esq., Conn. 

Edward McGehee, Esq., Mississippi. 1870. Robert Arthington, Esq., England. 

Rev. Edmund S. Janes, D. D., N. Y. 1871. Hon. Dudley S. Gregory, N. J. 

Rev. Matthew Simpson, D. D., Penn. 1872. Rt. Rev. John Johns, D. D., Virginia. 

Rev. Levi Scott, D. D., Delaware. 1872. Rev. Edward P. Humphrey, D. D., Ky. 

Rev. Rob't Paine, D. D., Mississippi. 1872. Dr. Harvey Lindsly, D. C. 

Rev. Thomas A. Morris, D. D., Ohio. 1873. Hon. Charles S. Olden, New Jersey. 



The figures before each name indicate the year of first election. 



AMERICAS COLONIZATION SOCIETY 



LIFE DIRECTORS. 



Eon. Thomas \v. Williams 

• R. Bazai v, Esq It. J. 

' SONARS Bacox. D. 1» Conn. 

1841. Pbabois Grotih, Esq Mitt. 

1845. : . Puransv, 1. 1.. I' -Y. P. 

18* . Hi uv • ■ N. Y. 

1851. i. .. 1>. D, I.I.. I>. -V. ,/. 

9all,M. D Md. 

L852. Hon. Millard Pillmori N. P. 

1 1. i >i si n. Esq ft. /. 

1-5.:. Hon. A! BRRT Prardi Mass. 

V. }'. 

1858. I>r . i'h\uii> H. Ni.\\ Miss. 

CUTT, D. D A IB York. 



Rev. Joseph Tract, I). I) Mas*. 

i-4. Dr. Alrxahdrr Gov Ohio. 

1868. Edward Coles, Esq Pa. 

'hau.xcet Rose, Esq Ind. 

■ i Boas, Esq W. P. 

Rev. Joseph F. Tuttle, D. D Ind. 

L8G9. Joseph Hrhrt, LL.1> Z>. C. 

I>r. Charles H. Nichols D. C. 

Kev. Be.nj. I. Haioht, D. D -V. Y. 

Rei s [uugi Pkimk, Ii. D y. Y. 

1870. Ijamkl Price. Esq .V. J. 

1-71. Rer. William H. Steele, D. D....V. J. 
18TL Rev. Hknut C. Potter, D. D .V. Y. 



DELEGATES APPOINTED BY AUXILIARY SOCIETIES FOR 1873. 

Vzrm i. — ilon. Luko P. PolanJ. Hon. Wellington C. Smith, 

■ rse. 

Theodore I> D., Rev. 1 

i rustic Butler, B glisb, Hon. James T. Pratt, H. P. 

. u k, 1 Isq., 11- nrj II...- j . 

Mai . Washington Warren, Rev. John W. 

. D., Rev. Dudley 0. Haynea, Dri Henry Lyon. 

Ntw I urnael 1>. Alexander, D. D., Rev. William F. 

I ' I' . almon Merwin I U. 1 

i - if.Tv.— Hon. Dudleys. Greg ry, • '"!. Morgan L. Smith. 
- jciett.— Rev. Samuel E. Appleton. 



FIFTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



PRESENTED JANUARY 21, 1873. 



OBITUARY. 

During the past year an unusually large number of the early 
friends and patrons of the Society have been removed by 
death. Among them were five Vice Presidents and three Life 
Directors. 

The death" of Rev. Ralph Randolph Gurley, which occurred 
on the 30th of July, was an event peculiarly affecting, not only 
to the executive officers of the Society, but to the friends of the 
cause throughout this country and in other lands. By his 
earnest and faithful devotion to its interests for half a cen- 
tury, he became extensively known and greatly beloved. Mr. 
Gurle}- commenced his labors as General Agent in 1S22; was 
elected Corresponding Secretary in 1839; and was made Vice 
President and Life Director in 1854. Deeply impressed with 
the magnitude and importance of the enterprise, with an abid- 
ing faith in its success, and with a spirit of gentleness and 
forbearance which commended him to the confidence of the 
public, he presented and enforced its principles and its aims 
with great eloquence, both in this country and in England. 
He made three personal visits to Liberia: one in 1824, and 
while there prepared a plan for the civil government of the 
Colony, which was adopted, and which is. substantially, still 
in force; one in 1849, under instructions from the Government 



FIFTY SIXTH AXXCAI, IMTORT 



Ob ituar y . 



of the United States; and one in 1867, when he was permitted 
eand rejoice over what had been achieved. The name of 
Gurley, as identified with African Colonization, will be held in 
affectionate and grateful remembrance by Christian philan- 
thropists down through the ages to come. 

The Rev. Thomas C. Opham, 1». D., of Maine, ie another 
name which will long be cherished as an enlightened friend 
and advocate of the cause. Be was elected Vice President in 
1S48, and it continued to have hie firm confidence and support 
while be lived, and was not forgotten in his last will. For 
a period of forty years, Mr. Upham was widely known and 
highly esteemed as a Professor of .Menial and Moral Philoso- 
phy in Bowdoin College. lie was a man of great purity of 
lit.', whose Christian character is beautifully exhibited in his 
published works. 

In the death of Hon. Ralph I. [ngersoll, of Connecticut, 
we have lost a very intelligent and abiding friend. lie was 
elected Vice President of the Society in 1853, and most cheer- 
fully gave his annual contribution to it till the close of bis long 
life. Mr. [ngersoll was an eminent lawyer, a wise counsellor, 
and a statesman of no ordinary reputation. lie held offices of 
high public trust both in the State and nation, and having 
ed well his generation, died in the faith of the (Jo-pel. 

Another man whose lose we mourn was the Hon. George 

F Fort, Ex-Governor of New Jersey, who was elected Vice 

President in 1853. The principle- and objects of this Society 

received his heart)- indorsement, and their prevalence 

gave him real pleasure. As a citizen, Mr. Fort was much 

'ted and beloved for his soundness of judgment, his 

jrity of character, and his faithfulness to duty. 

It is also our painful duty to record the decease of John 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 7 

Obituary .. 

Bell, M. J)., of Pennsylvania, elected Vice President of this 
Society in 1850. Dr. Bell was one of the founders of the 
Pennsylvania Colonization Society, which was organized in 
1826, and almost till his death he was an active and valuable 
member of its Board of Managers. His faithful watchfulness 
over its interests, his promptness in the discharge of duty, and 
his ever courteous demeanor, can be duly appreciated by only 
those who were so long and so happily associated with him. 
Nor was the Colonization enterprise the sole object of his 
benevolent regard. He deeply sympathized with and aided, 
as he had the ability and opportunity, other like philanthropic 
institutions. 

We would not fail to mention also William Silliman, Esq., 
of Louisiana, and Hon. William Nash, of Vermont, who were 
Life Directors of this Society. Mr. Silliman was made such in 
1852, and Mr. Nash in 1860. Tbey were both men who were 
respected and esteemed in the communities where they lived, 
for their excellence of character and their Christian life. 

And there are three otber names no longer among the living, 
not to be forgotten in our report, viz: 

Prof. Samuel F. B. Morse, LL.D., late President of the New 
York Branch of this Society, whose practical mind contributed 
to give to the world the invaluable benefits of the magnetic 
telegraph, for which he received the highest honors and the 
lasting gratitude of the enlightened nations of the earth. Prof. 
Morse, like his venerated father, the Bev. Dr. Jedediah Morse, 
was among the first to embrace and inculcate the principles of 
African Colonization; and though conscious of his world-wide 
fame, and realizing the infirmities of age, he did not hesitate to 
accept the Presidency of the New York Colonization Society, 
and publicly to advocate its claims. 



FIFTY-SIXTH ANNUAL KEPOET 



Finances. 



Rev. John Sets, 1>. I>., for nearly forty years honorably 
identified with our work in this country and in Liberia, and 
with Christian Missions in Western Africa, and more recently 
;i> Minister Resident and Consul General of the Government 
of tin- United States to the Government of Liberia; it was his 
great gratification to Bee the oldest Mission of the Methodist 
E. Church take form in an Annual Conference of some twenty- 
five preachers, with their bishop, all of the colored race, and a 
Republic established and flourishing on that once benighted 
Coast. 

Hon. Edward James Roye, the fifth President of Liberia, 
for a quarter of a century an enterprising and successful mer- 
chant at Monrovia; to him belongs the honor of first export- 
ing African products to this country and to England in his 
own vessel, carrying Liberian papers, and sailing under the 
Liberian flag. 

FINANCES. 

RECEIPTS. 

The receipts have been — 

From donations $10,603 79 

From legacies 16,921 4"> 

rest on investments and investments realized 2,2 55 00 

For education in Liberia 1,056 00 

From other sources 2,f>00 98 

Receipts £3 : 22 

Balance in the treasury, January 1, 1872 -1 27 

Making the resources of the year $33,66] 49 

DI3HUK.-I.ME.srs. 

The paymenta have been as follows: 

For the carriage of • from their homes to the port of 
embarkation, and for their passage and settlement in 
Liberia $12,189 33 



AMEKICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 9 

E m igration. 

For interest on borrowed money $879 28 

For loan returned 1,000 00 

For insurance, taxes, and repairs of Colonization Building 941 56 

For paper and printing the African Repository 1,963 65 

For education in Liberia 1,150 00 

For salaries of Secretaries and Agents, printing Annual He- 
port, litigating will cases, expenses of Auxiliary Societies, 

stationery, fuel, postage, &c 14,951 36 

Disbursements $33,075 18 

Balance in treasury, January 1, 1873 586 31 

Total $33,661 49 

The wide-spread financial depression, occasioned in no small 
degree by the extensive fires that have prevailed, and the 
general occupation of the public mind with the Presidential 
election, have had their influence in lessening the receipts of 
all benevolent institutions. 

EMIGRATION. 
Our regular fall expedition was despatched in the barque 
Jasper, from New York, November 21 - the emigrants having 
arrived in that city on the previous evening in the steamer 
San Salvador, from Savannah. They numbered one hundred 
and fifty, mostly in families, and were all from the State of 
Georgia, viz: 24 from Sparta, Hancock count}-; 32 from Ilaw- 
kinsville, Pulaski count}'; 35 from Milledgeville, Baldwin 
county, and 59 from Yaldosta, Lowndes county. Fifty-nine 
chose to locate at Arthington, an interior town on the St. Paul's 
Eiver, and ninety-one at Philadelphia, a new settlement at 
Cape Palmas. Fifty-six reported themselves as communicants 
in the Methodist and Baptist Churches, with one licensed 
minister of the Gospel. Ninety-two were twelve years old 



10 FIFTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 

I g rati o n . 

and upwards; tort} were between twelve and two years; and 
eighteen were under two years of age. Of the adult males, 
twenty-five were farmers, and one cooper and one carpenter. 

Messrs. Yates and Porterfield, of New York, with whom tho 
contract had been made for their carriage in the Jasper, have 
long been engaged in the Wot African trade, and they fully 
provided for their comfort and subsistence, by having houses 
built for them on the main deck, which were spacious and airy, 
and by furnishing provisions of good quality and in abundant 
quantity. In addition to their baggage and the customary 
stores and tools for their Bupport and use during their first six 
months alter arrival, a cane sugar mill was shipped on the 
Jasper for Mr. Jefferson Bracewell, at his order, for which hu 
pays $225, exclusive of freight and insurance. 

Dr. John N. Lewis, who had just graduated from the Medi- 
cal Department of Dartmouth College, N"ew Eampsh ire, ac- 
companied the emigrants, and will enter on the practice of his 
profession on landing in his native country. 

Th«-.' one hundred and titty emigrants make the whole num- 
ber colonized by the Society since the war to he L\:» x 7. and a 
total, from the beginning, of l-l.!»~r>: exclusive of 5,722 recap- 
tured Africans, which we induced and enabled the ( rovernment 
of the United States to settle in Liberia, making a grand total 
697 persons to whom the Society has given homes in 
Africa. 

Objections are often urged against exporting laborers out of 
mntry. In answer to such we think it sufficient to say — 
The -mall number of emigrants annually sent to Liberia/ com- 
pared with the large accessions to this country from foreign 
land-, is too insignificant lor serious consideration. Besides, 
inasmuch a- some of tic colored population wish to go, and 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 11 

Sa t i s/i e d . 

Liberia desires them to come, it seems neither kind nor just to 
try to keep them here. Moreover, we believe it to be a duty 
we owe both to them and to Africa to colonize them. 

SATISFIED. 

The barque Edith Rose, which was mentioned in our last 
Report to have gone to sea from Hampton Roads, Virginia, on 
the 7th November, with two hundred and forty-five emigrants, 
arrived at Monrovia after a pleasant passage of thirty-seven 
days. At a meeting held on the day before leaving the vessel, 
they unanimously adopted and directed the publication of a 
paper, declaring that " in respect to food there has been the 
greatest abundance and that which was good," and " the ut- 
most kindness has invariably obtained, being unexceptionable 
and satisfactory." 

From letters from members of this emigration, the following 
brief extracts are taken : 

Mr. Scott Mason, a prominent man in the large party from 
Clay Hill, York county, South Carolina, under date of April 
12, says: 

" I and my family, and the majority of the people that came 
out with me, are enjoying good health, and we all tender to 
you and the Colonization Society our hearty thanks for your 
great kindness in planting us on the land of our ancestors. 
I and the majority of the emigrants are entirely satisfied with 
our new home and country." 

Mr. Jefferson Bracewell, the head of a family of sixteen and 
of a company of sixty-eight persons from Valdosta, Georgia, 
wrote June 20 : 

"My family are all well at this time. I did not lose one of 
them in the fever. The members of my company are all well 



L2 FIFTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPOET 






except one, who is nol now in bed. As Boon as I could com- 
! went to work. To-day I have aboul two 
acr< a in sugar cam — the most of it is higher than my head- 
in corn, two in rice, and Bix in cassada. 1 am also eating 
corn and potatoes of my own raising. I have built me :i h< 
an 1 am building another. 1 want you to Bend me a sugar cant: 
mill, fourteen inches in diameter, with two boilers, one fifty 
and the other holding sixty gallons. I would have written to 
you I" fore this, but I wanted to know something about things 
here. This is a good country." 

Mr. Peter .Mountain, an industrious emigrant from Windsor, 
Bertie county, North Carolina, states, August 9: 

• • w.. are all well and perfectly satisfied with our new settle- 
ment. I thank my Father in heaven that, through Hi-- mercy, 
I am in Liberia. I have not any further use for the United 

-." 

Mr. .lui" M leader of the party just referred to from 

ii Carolina, thus expresses himself, August 21: 

■• I write to let you know that I am well. an. I that I thank 
God that 1 came to Liberia. 1 like tin- face of the country, 
and find our land to 1"- rich. I beg to sa^ to you, from my 
heart thai I am well satisfied, ami 1 know that 1 can make a 
'1 money, too, in Liberia, i never expect to go 
back io tie- 1'i.ii. o live, and I hope God will bless the 

Colonizat r helping poor colored people to Liberia, 

wh< re they can i"- Bomebody, i I' they try." 

An estimabi ■ i itizon of North Carolina, in a business letter 
of date July 'l'l. 1872, incidentally remarks: 

• I I I letters from some of my people in Liberia. 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 13 

Applications. 

They write they are doing well and are satisfied, and also that 
their children are going to school, and they have regular night 
meetings and preaching on Sunday, having built a church since 
they arrived out. John says any man that will work can live, 
and some of them say with one half the labor it requires 
here." 

APPLICATIONS. 

There exists a strong and growing desire among the people 
of color to remove to Liberia, satisfied that they will do better 
and be more happy there than anywhere in the United States. 
They are aware that in Liberia each adult emigrant is given 
ten acres, and every family receives twenty-five acres of land; 
that there is no prejudice or rivalry of race in the road to pro- 
motion, dignity, and honor; and that life, property, and the pur- 
suit of happiness are not only the acknowledged, but the 
equally respected right of every one in the nation. 

Not a few of these people recognize the Providence which 
has secured their freedom, as also making them instruments 
of good to their fatherland. The Christian Recorder, the organ 
of the African Methodist E. Church in the United States, re- 
cently gave utterance to the following pregnant sentiments: 

"The fact is, the evangelization of Africa has at last to fall 
upon the negro. He is to be the man of God's right hand in 
redeeming its millions. We know that the politicians tell us 
this is exceptional; but indeed it is altogether in keeping with 
great social laws. We do not stop to argue the question 
whether colored Americans are so identified with Africa as to 
be called 'its own people.' But we do say, as the Irish Ameri- 
can is nearer to Ireland than any other part of the American 
people, and he feels so, even so are we nearer to Africa ; and, 



14 11 rn six I'll A NX CM. REPORT 

A pplieationt. 

therefore, must we feel for its conversion more keenly than 
any others, and labor more assiduously." 

Scarcely a week passod daring the year that the Society did 
nut receive applications for passage to Liberia. In February, 
these included 13 residents of Georgia, 214 of Florida, and 550 
of Alabama; and in March, 50 of the inhabitants of North 

Carolina. 200 of South Carolina, and 300 of Georgia; making 
a total of 1,327 poisons, in five of the Southern States, who 
solicited our aid within the two months mentioned. And since 
the last emigrants embarked — on the 21st November — we have 
received a list of 239 names from Hawkinsville, Pulaski county, 
Georgia, earnestly requesting to be sent the coming May, and 
from a company of about 200 persons at House Creek, Wilcox 
county, Georgia, who. with other parties not named above, 
make a total of over 600 desiring to leave this year for Liberia. 
All of these applications were voluntary and unsolicited, and 
were mainly caused by letters which the applicants themselves 
received direct from relatives and acquaintances who have 
settled in that Republic. The class of people and the motives 
which govern them, may he learned from the annexed copies 
Of their appeals to us, written, it is believed, by those intending 

to emigrate: — 

A writer Bays: "I have one hundred and ninety-two names 
of persons, in families, who are ready to go at anytime. They 
beg me to ask you to do all you can to Bend them. This num- 
ber i- composed of farmers, carpenters, blacksmiths, and min- 
isters of the Gospel Most of them arc young persons or in the 
prime of life.' 

Another remark-: "We have now a company of about three 
hundred, who want a passage to Liberia as soon as the Society 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 15 

Applications. 

can give it. You will please let me hear from you very soon. 
The company is made up of first-class men and women." 

A third mentions that in a party of fifty persons, the heads 
of" three familiesare communicants in the Presbyterian Church, 
and several others are members in good standing of the Meth- 
odist E. Church. The men are those that Liberia needs — hard- 
working men, mostly farmers. One of them has heard from 
some of his relatives in Liberia, and he is anxious to join 
them." 

A fourth writes: "We pray that the Society will give us a 
passage to Cape Palmas, as we are anxious to join our relatives 
and friends there, who are waiting to greet us on our arrival. 
We have in our number some of the best farmers and mechanics 
in this State. We all want a permanent home, which we be- 
lieve we can never get until we reach our own land — Africa. 
We hope soon to hear what conclusion your honorable body 
has arrived at, so that we will know in time what to do. Our 
total number is one hundred and sixty-two persons, nearly all 
in families." 

A fifth states: "There is considerable zeal manifested to 
learn all we can of Liberia. Having a large colored population 
in this county, we can leave here with three hundred. Most 
of our people are poor, owing to the very low price paid for 
labor since the surrender. It is only sufficient to keep us from 
starvation. Very few have anything left after a year's hard 
work. We will probably be able to get sufficient clothing, but 
cannot the Society provide for our transportation to the port 
of shipment? Among us are carpenters, blacksmiths, brick- 
layers, plasterers, cabinet-makers, wheelwrights, brickmakers 
and others. Our members are mostly professors of religion." 



16 PIFTY-SIXTB ANM'AL REPORT 

/. i b eria. 
LIBERIA. 

Constitutional controversies, which bad been in agitation 
for several years, and an intense excitement growing out of 
the negotiation of a loan ol" £100,000 stg., in London. hy the 
party in power, against which measuros the opposition ear- 
nestly protested, have quieted down; and during the last 
twelve months peace and order have prevailed; agricultural, 
mechanical, mercantile and professional pursuits have been 
successfully prosecuted, and intellectual, moral, and religious 
interests have not been neglected. 

Hon. Joseph J. Roberts, recalled to the Presidency, entered 
on the duties ol his fifth term, of two year- each, January 1, 
1872, ••amid great rejoicing and enthusiasm." The origin, 
purpose, and destiny of the Republic are thus forcibly pre- 
sented in his recent Inaugural Address: 

'•It is beyond reasonable cavil, that Liberia was planted in 
accordance with a divine purpose. This conclusion, to my 
mind, is made clearly apparent by the numerous and unmis- 
takable interpositions of an overruling Providence in her lie- 
half during the man} - perilous vicissitudes through which she 
has passed. It is to me also clear that, in establishing Liberia, 
God designed to make of her an instrument of good, in impart- 
ing to Africa the inestimable blessings of a Christian civiliza- 
tion. It \\a> in the spirit of this mission that our pioneer 

fathers laid here, in bl 1 and Bweat, the foundations of a 

Christian State, upon which, they confidently hoped, would be 
erected an abiding negro nationality, that would not only re- 
flect honor upon the race, wheresoever scattered, but also 
demonstrate its capacity for self-government and the proper 
maintei ance of free institutions." 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 17 

Liberia. 

The relations of Liberia with the natives are of the most 
friendly character. Its mission and duty to this vast popula- 
tion are thus clearly recognized in the same Inaugural Ad- 
dress : 

"It is extremely desirable that the whole aboriginal popu- 
lation of the Republic should be drawn, as rapidly as possible, 
within the circle of civilization, and be fitted by suitable educa- 
tional training for all the duties of civil and social life; and 
thus, too, we shall be exerting a hallowed influence upon the 
tribes of our far interior." 

"The past few months," observes the Lone Star, issued at 
Monrovia, " have found our farmers busily engaged in the 
cutting and grinding of sugar-cane, and the manufacture of 
sugar. Most of the steam-engines up the St. Paul's have con- 
sequently been actively employed, and the verdant banks of 
the river have been a scene of lively industry. Some sixty 
thousand pounds of sugar are shortly to be shipped, we 
understand, by Mr. Sharp. Mr. Washington, Messrs. Dunbar 
& D'Coursey, Mr. Cooper, and Mr. Roe are also making fair 
crops. And last, but not least, Mr. "W. Spencer Anderson 
hopes, we are informed, to make his estate furnish the market 
with a creditable return in sugar. Besides these there is a 
considerable quantity manufactured by various farmers up the 
river, who employ hand or cattle-power in the making of their 
sugar." 

The Minister Resident and Consul General to Liberia of 
the Government of the United States lately wrote to the St. 
Louis Democrat, as follows: "Liberians are now* discovering 
the fact, that coffee is to their country of by far greater im- 
portance than cotton has proved to ours. The coffee has been 
2 



18 I EFT'S SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 

/■ ia. 

pronounced by those of great experience in the cultivation of 
the article equal in quality to any in the world, and superior 
1 • decade more, I am quite certain, the prolific soil 
of Liberia will be shaded by an almost uninterrupted coffee 
grove, stretching along the Liberian Coast from Cape Mount 
to Cape Palmas." 

The Republican, published at Monrovia, states that "Messrs 
McGill Brothers purchased last month the schooner 'Sum- 
mei'8ide,' 120 tons, formerly of Bristol. They have sold to Mr. 
W. F. Nelson their schooner 'Cupid.' The cargo which had 
been ready for the 'Cupid's' trip to England, 38,000 gallons of 
palm oil, was Bhipped by the steamer 'Africa' t<> Liverpool." 

"On the 12th October, the schooner 'Petronella' arrived in 
oar harbor, having been purchased in New York for the firm 
of out- two enterprising young merchants here, Messrs. Sher- 
man & Dimery." 

The /. S - again Bays: "We would not refrain from 

making a passing allusion to what seems to us to promise to 

I..-, at no distant 'lay, one of the great Bources of wealth and 

influence in this country. We have before the mind's eye the 

thriving establishments of < ertain mercantile gentlemen, some 

of I' ng - 1 : 1 1 1 ■ i i 1 1 u r . and others which have sprung up within v*-vy 

r and their daily increasing wealth, with their 

Scations far and near. Among these we may mention 

tie- old. familial-, and prosperous firm of McGill Brothers, now 

—tally and satisfactorily conducted by Messrs. J. A 1'. 

McGill, two young gentlemen who manifest a fair talent for 

commercial business. Again, there are the wealth}- and pros- 

itablishments of lion. J). 1). Warner, Gabriel .Mooro 

— . Sherman & Dimery, Henry Cooper, Esq., W. 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 19 

Liberia. 

F. Nelson, Esq., (Mayor of Monrovia,) and G. Creswick, Esq. 
These are all flourishing establishments here, to which we 
refer as our leading mercantile houses, and in support of our 
opinion concerning the commercial advancement which Li- 
beria has made, and bids fair to continue to be making for 
years, much to the substantial wealth and prosperity of the 
country. 

"It is well known that most of the establishments above- 
named deal with many of the principal commercial houses of 
the first and various markets of the world ; that year after 
year the exports of our produce are considerably increasing in 
quantity, and frequently in variety; and that additions and 
improvements are being almost constantly made by some one 
or another of these merchants to his establishment, to meet 
the increasing demands for accommodation for his trade. We 
may instance the recent importation of several cranes, among 
which were two for W. F. Nelson, Esq., and one for Messrs. 
Sherman & Dimery. Also the considerable additions which 
have been made to the store of Gr. Creswick, Esq., supplemented 
by the importation of an iron bridge, to be extended to the 
verge of the river's bank, and which is intended to be shortly 
erected. Again, there is the large warehouse which is being 
built for Henry Cooper, Esq., and the fine wharf accommoda- 
tion of W. F. Nelson, Esq., all of which may be taken as un- 
doubted evidences of their business, respectively, being lucra- 
tive. What Liberia wants are men of energy, enterprise, and 
capital, to draw out her vast resources, and a population skilled 
in mechanical and agricultural pursuits." 



rilTY-SIX 111 AN MAI. REPORT 
EDUCATION. 

Thirty-eight scholars, of whom five are native Africans, are 
; to be in the Preparatory Department of Liberia College, 
and ten students in the College proper. The proportions in 
the several grades are about the same as are in mosl of the 
i .•w western colleges in this country, and for the same reason. 
The young men. when half educated or less, are called away 
to go into business, because they are better qualified than any 
others that van be had. A large Freshman Class is expected 
for the coming year. 

The schools of this Society al Arthington and Brewerville 
are reported to be "in healthy operation," with about one 
hundred and thirty pupils, and the teachers in punctual and 
regular attendance. As soon as a suitable building, in course 
of erection at Arthington, is completed, an additional school 
will he opened there at our expen- 

Other educational facilities are afforded in Liberia, as may 
adily inferred by the following announcements in the 
an for A ugust last : 

Mr, A. B. KlNG "begs leave to inform the public that he will 
hool in Monrovia on the third Monday of the 
nt month, under the patronage of the Presbyterian Mis- 
sion." 

••We understand that Mr. Dennis C. Ferguson has also 

d a School in Clay-Ashland, under the same auspice-." 

"The Methodist E. Mission Bchool here has re-opened under 

tin- tuition of Mr-. Mahy L. Timhkri.akk, eldest daughter of 
the late Bishop Bi bns. The Bchool closed on the marriage of 
M Fannie Johnson." 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 21 

Exp lorations. 

"Trinity P. Episcopal Church school, Monrovia, "W. M. 
Eichards principal, Miss Sarah Barclay assistant, is now 
open for the accommodation of pupils from all parts of the 
country. The interior and river settlements will do well to 
avail themselves of the advantages it affords." 

EXPLORATIONS. 
To Liberians is due the credit of exploring the country im- 
mediately east of the Republic, bringing to light a salubrious 
mountain region, well populated, and by more intelligent and 
more civilized tribes than those on the Coast. 

"At the distance of about one hundred and twenty miles 
interiorward," writes a prominent Liberian, " is the country 
of the Barline people: a lofty, cool, mountainous country, con- 
taining a large and crowded population, numerous towns, un- 
usual and superior civil regulations, and distinguished, withal, 
by great industrial energies. The capital of the country is a 
large city, surrounded by a wall of stone: here two market 
days are kept every week, and thousands of people, even from 
remote distances, come with goods, provisions, and cattle in 
large numbers, for sale." 

Boporo and Toto-Korie are stated to be some one hundred 
miles almost directly east of Monrovia, with " a dry, healthy 
atmosphere, and in a rich country, abounding in beautiful 
landscapes, elevated hills and fertile valleys, with charming 
streams of water murmuring along. Here horses thrive and 
cattle abound, while the eyes may feast upon the rice and cot- 
ton fields, from the latter of which are annually manufactured 
those immense quantities of cloths that find their way to the 
Liberia, Sierra Leone, and other markets." 



I'IKTY-SIX 111 ANNUAL IIKPOKT 



LOUS. 



Mu sard a j estimated to be Dear one hundred miles northeast 
ol Boporo, is reported to be "elevated two thousand feel above 
vel of the sea. The atmosphere is very dry. Musardu 
is an exceedingly healthy place; there was not one prostrate, 
sickly person in the town — containing a population of between 
seven and eight thousand." 

MISSIONS. 

A I Ihristian Republic exists on the Continent of Africa, planted 
by American benevolence, through a Society encouraged to the 
attempt by resolutions and pledges of nearly all the different 
denominations in the United States. By the peace and pro- 
ri which its presence secures the native tribes are ren- 
dered accessible to missionary operations, and from it are taken 
a class of helpers for the work of Christian missions of very 
great service. 

The last Annual Report of the Massachusetts Colonization 

contains an elaborate examination of the question, as 

to what the several American Boards of Missions are doing for 

the regeneration of Western Africa, and what aid, in doing it, 

tii'\ derive from us? The investigation shows that these 

■ ■ \'< d are dependent on us, almost exclusively, for men; 

that their missionaries, nearly all of them, are not men whom 

lave sent out as missionaries, but men, or the children of 

whom we have Bent out as emigrants, and established 

there with means of subsistence." 

The Report concludes: 

■ Eere we have six Foreign Missionary Boards in the United 
- reporting about one hundred and forty-two laborers in 
Liberia, of whom fifty-two are ordained ministers of the Gos- 
pel ; numerous local churches, most of them containing converts 



AMEKICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 23 

Mi s s i o n s. 

from heathenism ; Sabbath schools, day schools, and higher 
schools ; and the work advancing beyond the civilized settle- 
ments, among the native tribes, who invite its progress. All 
this is true, and honestly told. But the cursory reader or 
hearer, if not well versed in African affairs, is liable to be 
grossly deceived by it. It will sound to him as if these six 
Boards had found fifty-two ministers of the Gospel of suitable 
character, and sent them out to Africa as missionaries to the 
heathen. On reflection, and reading more carefully, he may 
find that some, perhaps five or six of them, are native converts, 
the fruits of missionary labors. But he will be surprised to 
learn that, of the fifty-two ordained ministers, only two, one 
of whom has resigned, were sent out from this country as mis- 
sionaries, 'and that Liberia herself has furnished the other 
fifty, and, except the wives of those two, and perhaps two or 
three other women, all of the ninety who are not reported as 
ordained. 

" Many of these missionaries were ministers of the Gospel in 
the United States, who emigrated, like other emigrants, by the 
aid of the Colonization Society. The others have attained to 
their clerical standing in Liberia; some of them, but not all, 
having been aided in their preparation by the Missions. Four 
of the ordained missionaries of the Northern Baptist Board 
are emigrants sent out by the Colonization Society since the 
war. 

" For this state of affairs the Missionary Boards aYe not to 
blame. They have done what they could. They have sent out 
white laborers, ordained and unordained, who have labored 
there till death or failing health terminated their labors. By 
their generous sacrifices of life, health, and treasure, they have 
contributed largely towards the present ability of Liberia to 



24 FIFTY-SIXTH ANNUAL RBPOET 



- f a t 



furnish missionaries, and they arc perfectly right in availing 
themselves of the supply which they have done so miu-h to 
orea 

•• Bui the facts effectually dispose of the theory, that Africa 
is i" be regenerated by Missionary Boards, without the aid of 
Colonization. Liberia is found to be absolutely indispensable 
as a nursery for missionaries, and must be sustained, if these 
missions arc to live and prosper." 

ENCOURAGEMENT. 

Ethiopia's conversion to God is promised and assured. There 
are rays of light indifferent portions of the Continent, showing 
material, moral, and religious improvement. Not only is the 
Mohammedan ruler of Egypt protecting the Christian Mission- 
ary, but granting bim favors. The late war in Abyssinia is 
being overruled for the spread of the Gospel in that interest- 
•untry. The diamond district continues to yield rich 
treasures, and the prospect is that the only remaining vestige 
of the nefarious slave-trade will soon be suppressed. Several 
exp< litionsare organizing lor the thorough exploration of the 
unknown ( Yntral regions. 

In West Africa commerce is constantly growing, and the 
English language, with its noble and elevating literature, is 
rapidly spreading. Settlements of civilized and Christian col- 
ored people arc extending along the Coast and pushing into 
the interior. Liberia has a bright future before her, with 
Churches, Schools, a College, wholesome laws, improved agri- 
culture, a profitable trade, and a genial climate. This Society 
has abundant reason to thank God and take courage in the 
prosecution of its work, 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



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a -5 



MINUTES 

OF THE 

AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



\V.>. 21, ] -73. 

Annual Meeting of the American Colonizatioi : 
was held this evening, at balf-past seven o'clock, in the Fourth 
yterian Charch, Ninth street, near Gr. The President, 
Hon. John II. B. Latrobe, in the chair. 

I Divine blessing was invoked by the Rev. John C. Smith, 

D. I>.. Pastor of the ( Ihurch. 

An introductory address was given by the President of the 

and the Fifty-Sixth Annual Report of the Society 

was presented by the Corresponding Secretary, who also read 

extracts therefrom. 

Addresses were delivered by the Rev. E. P. Humphrey, 

D.D.,-j of Louisville, Kentucky; Rev. R. 11. Nassau, M. D..J of 

the Presbyterian Mission at Corisco, Western Africa; Eon. 

tfaynard, M. C.;§ and Eon. G. Washington Warren,|| 

of Bo 

I . thm adjourned to meet at 12 o'clock m., to- 

morrow, in it- Rooms in the Colonizatioi) Building. 

edictioo was pronounced by Rev. John C. Smith, D.D. 



< lOLONIZATION Bl 1 1. MM'., 
\V.\ ;r, 22, I s 73. 

I A merican < Colonization Society met this day at 12 o'clock 
u., pursuant to adjournment: Presidenl Latrobe in the chair. 

I See pa;.'- 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 27 

Resolutions — Election of Offi cers. 

On motion, the reading of the Minutes was dispensed with. 

Hon. Dudley S.Gregory, Col. Morgan L. Smith, and Rev. Sam- 
uel E. Appleton were appointed a Committee to Nominate the 
President and Vice Presidents of the Society for the ensuing 
year. 

On motion of Col. Morgan L. Smith, it was 

Resolved, That the Society returns its grateful acknowledgments to the 
Hon. John H. B. Latrobe, Eev. E. P. Humphrey, D. D., Rev. R. H. Nassau, 
M. D., Hon. Horace Maynard, and Hon. G. Washington Warren, for their 
very eloquent, impressive, and excellent addresses delivered last evening at 
the Fifty-Sixth Anniversary Meeting of this Society, and that they be re- 
quested to furnish copies for publication. 

On motion of Rev. Samuel E. Appleton, it was 

Resolved, That the thanks of this Society be extended to the Pastor and 
Trustees of 1<he Fourth Presbyterian Church for their kindness and courtesy 
in granting to this Society the use of their Church for its Annual Meeting 
last evening: and to the Choir for their acceptable music on the occasion. 

Hon. Mr. Gregory, as Chairman of the Committee on Nomi- 
nations, made a report, recommending the re-election of the 
present President and Yice Presidents of the Society, and nomi- 
nating Ex-Gov. Charles S. Olden, of New Jersey, as an addi- 
tional Vice President. 

On motion, it was 

Resolved, That the report be accepted and approved, and that the Societj* 
elect the persons nominated by the Committee. (See page 3.) 

On motion, it was 

Resolved, That the Annual Report of the Society be referred to the Board 
of Directors. 

On motion, it was 

Resolved, That the Society do now adjourn, to meet on the third Tuesday 
in January, 1S74, at 7j o'clock p. M., in such place as the Executive Com- 
mittee shall designate. 

Attest: Wm. Coppinqer, Secretary. 



FIFTY SIS I'll A.NNUAL REPORT 



John 3. B . Lat ro b t . 



ADDRESS OF HON. JOHN H. B. LATROBE. 

I - lnd Gentlemen, Members of the Colonization So- 
We meet to-night to celebrate the Fifty-Sixth Anniver- 
sary of the American Colonization Society. Perhaps we have 
never rael before under circumstances more worthy of remark. 
We are permitted to understand more clearly now than ever 
what has been and is to be our share in the mighty work of slow 
development . the fulfilment of prophecy in the Christianization 
of At'i ica. Towards this, unconscious ami unappreciated i 
cies have for years been surely ami steadily advancing. Who 
would have imagined, for instance, that slavery itself, now bo 
happily at an end, would ever come to be regarded as having 
been from its very beginning among the most important of 
them all. Ami yet. may it not he truly said, that to slavery 
Africa will in the future bo indebted for a whole nation 
of missionaries to aid in the accomplishment of the grand 
result. 

Climate rendering this hopeless as the work of white men, 
it must Ik- for black men to perform it; and slavery, which has 
given to the latter Christianity in our midst, has made that 
possible, which to human eyes would appear to have been im- 
without it. For the vanguard, as it were, of this 
mary host, our Society has effected a landing in Africa 
in founding tie- Republic of Liberia. 

Whatever other intlueiices, social or political, may he eon- 
nt upon our work, we are at least now permitted to 
• re dearly than before this one of it- agencies for the 
future. 

1 temporaneous with the growth of Liberia, there has 
grown up. keeping pace with it. an interest in Africa that cul- 
minated with the // raid expedition and the discovery of the 

Dhroughout the civilized world the liberality of 
incipal and the energy of the agent have made Africa 
prominent, lor the time being, in all men'-, minds. 

I exploration of Denham and Clapperton, half a century 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 29 

Address of Hon. John H. B. Latrobe. 

ago, caused a temporary feeling, to which this Society was 
largely indebted for the contributions that enabled it to fit out 
its earlier expeditions. 

Then came the voj^ages of the Landers down the Niger, to 
stimulate a flagging interest. Then, after many years, camo 
Barth, whose ponderous volumes had an influence in the same 
direction; nor were Du Chaillu and his gorilla story 'without 
their effect in keeping Africa before the public eye. Then 
came Livingstone's march from sea to sea within the tropics; 
then Grant and Spoke; and then Baker, the companionship 
of whose wife made his narrative as attractive as a romance. 
Then came the interest caused by the silence of Livingstone, 
and, finally, his discovery, through the efforts of an individual 
of another people, when the nation of the lost traveler held 
carefully or cautiously aloof. Call the Herald's efforts by 
what slighting name men may, they have identified their 
author with the story of a Continent. 

And now we have all England roused, and scarcely a news- 
paper appears that has not something in it about Africa. Sir 
Bartle Frere is sent out by the British Government on a mis- 
sion touching the slave-trade on the Eastern Coast, and we 
have scarcely read the announcement of the fact, before we 
find that the Sultan of Zanzibar has just promised the com- 
mander of an American frigate to refrain from and discourage 
the inhuman traffic. Then come to us accounts of the thou- 
sands whom the diamond fields of Southern Africa have at- 
tracted from England; and now the communication, partially 
opened between Monrovia and the gold region about Musardu, 
suggests the thought of an emigration to Liberia at no dis- 
tant day not unlike that which has peopled California; and 
still later, perhaps like that which brings Ireland and Ger- 
many to America. 

And during all this time what has been doing with the map 
of Africa? When this Society was founded "Sahara," or Great 
Desert, was the name given by geographers to all the interior 
space. Look now at the map. The names of the mighty 



30 FIFTY-SIXTH W.M'AI. REPORT 

l ■ ■■, '. 1'. 11 umphr ey , D . D . 

lakes, of mountain ranges, of great rivers, of many peoples, 

have effaced the word ••Sahara." 

Fifty years ago our only notion almost of the native African 
was obtained from slave-ship cargoes. Now, we know of par- 
tially civilized peoples, greedy of knowledge and most apt to 
imbibe it— peoples, too, among whom is marching Mohamme- 
danism, a> the precursor or the antagonist of Christianity. 

Slavery! Liberia I Africa! How different is their aspect 
now from what it was half a century ago! Colonization, too, 
owing it> existence to so many and such various motives! 
The slaveholder, the non-slaveholder, the religionist, the states- 
man, the politician even, at seasons advocating it and con- 
tributing to its treasury. Colonization, living from hand to 
mouth from day to day. but living still, working still, succeed- 
ing still, hoping still, believing still; and now, in the light of 
events, seeing clearly before it one great object, at least worthy, 
most worthy, of living for, the building up of a missionary na- 
tion becoming more potent day by day. for the christianizing 
of a Continent by the only agents competent to the task — the 
fulfilment of prophecy, to which all thai has been alluded to 
has been directly and inevitably tending. 

II. nee it is that I have felt justified in saying, that perhaps 
no meeting of our Society heretofore has been held under cir- 
cumstances more remarkable than those that this night sur- 
round us. 



ADDRESS OF REV. EDWARD P. HUMPHREY, D. D. 

.Mi:. President: Although our Society is now holding its 
Fifty-Sixth Anniversary, it i- only titty years since the pilgrim 
fathers of Liberia landed at Cap'- Mosurado. During this 
halt' century very significant changes have occurred in the 
affairs both of tic and of Western Africa. By virtue 

of these changes -■ vera! of tic- purposes which were cherished, 
and here, at the beginning, have been already accom- 
plished. 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 31 

Address of Eev . Edward P. II u mp hr ey , D . D . 

One of these purposes was the suppression of the West Af- 
rican slave-trade. This cruel traffic was able to defy or outwit 
all the great nations which were united for its extermination. 
Treaties were formed with this intent between the leading 
Powers of Christendom ; and these treaties were faithfully ob- 
served. Squadrons were detailed to watch the African Coast, 
and to chase the slavers on the high seas; and these ships of 
war were well equipped and well handled. The trade was 
checked by these measures, but its infernal horrors were im- 
measurably augmented. But when the Liberian settlers oc- 
cupied Cape Mesurado and Cape Palmas, with the regions 
between, they were in possession of some of the chief marts 
of the traffic. As early as 1853, only thirty years after the 
Colony was established, tbe slaver had been driven away from 
a line of coast equal to the distance between the mouth of the 
Hudson and the Capes of Florida. In its colonial infancy, in 
the midst of the neglect and hostility which it encountered, 
Liberia did more to cleanse from the brow of America and 
Europe the leprosy of the slave-trade — a leprosy of three 
hundred years' standing — than the combined diplomacy and 
naval forces of both continents had been able to accomplish. 
This work is now completed. 

Another of the ideas which gave origin to the colony was 
not less philanthropic. When the American cruiser seized a 
slave-ship, the question immediately arose what was to be done 
with the victims which were found between the decks. They 
could not be returned to their native villages, scattered over 
hundreds of miles in the unknown interior of Africa. Should 
these helpless savages be landed in New York and turned 
adrift? Should they be taken to one of our Southern ports or 
Cuba and be sold into slavery? Or, should they be set ashore 
in Africa, to fall at once into the hands of the native traders, 
and be sold again to the slave-ships? This emergency created 
the necessity of planting a colony on the African Coast, where 
these hapless refugees might find a permanent home. Most 
fortunately, this Society was able to offer them such a home 



32 FIFTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 



. Edward P. Humphrey , D. D. 

at Liberia. More than five thousand ami seven hundred of 
thriii have from time to time been settled in the Republic. 
That \\<>rk is now finished by the suppression of the slave- 
trade. 

Our Society bas taken its part in another and greater cause. 
From the beginning it was Been that the Society would exert 
a powerful influence on slavery in this country. Ii proposed 
nothing more than to colonize in Africa, with their own con- 
sent, the free people of color. But even this purpose touched 
the institution of slavery in many of its vital points. That 
our founders and early patrons were, without exception, the 
friends of emancipation, is more than oughl to be said; 
although nobody denies that such was the position of the 
largi :• pari of them. It was assailed by the two extremes of 
sentinient. According to one, it was a scheme of the slave- 
p to perpetuate slavery. Others denounced it as an in- 
sidious and dangerous enemy to the institution. For nearly 
thirty years the question was debated, whether in point of 
his Society was aiding in the perpetuation or in the 
overthrow of slavery. The debate was suddenly cut off, not 
by the dissolution of the Society or of its Colony, but by the 
extermination of slavery itself. We need not revive the dis- 
pute : bul 1 take leave to say — speaking now as a citizen of a 
slave State Bince 1835 — that according to my besl judgment 
perations of this Society and the success of its < 'olony 
contributed very largely to the formation of a public senti- 
hostile to slavery, by force of which slavery went down. 
And now nothing remains to be done in that direction. 

W 1), then, let us see where we Hand. Three of the leading 
pnrpi — which gave origin to our Society have been accom- 
plished. The West African slave-trade is wholly suppressed; 
a home has been provided for the rescued victims of the traf- 
nd slavery on this continent has ceased forever and for- 
ever. This is the record of what has been attempted and 
finished within the firsl half century of Liberia. 

. it must be -aid that unless some other important 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 33 

Address of Rev. Edward P. Humphrey, D. D. 

objects are set before this Society, the Society itself must 
shortly be dissolved. By an organic law of human progress, 
every institution, even the noblest and wisest, must disappear 
when its ends are accomplished. The analogy from nature 
shows itself in those orders of animals which perish in giving 
birth to their offspring. The vigorous anti-slavery societies in 
Great Britain were dissolved when slavery throughout the em- 
pire was abolished. The American Anti-Slavery Society, with 
rare discretion, adjourned without day on the adoption of the 
"thirteenth amendment." This principle takes an illustra- 
tion not only from human institutions, but from the ordinances 
of God as well. It pleased the Almighty, in old times, to choose 
out a people for Himself ; to plant them in a chosen land; to 
establish them as, at once, a mighty nation and a consecrated 
church; to give them a civil constitution and a directory for 
worship — both instruments being not only inspired, but re- 
duced to Writing; and to raise up for the people judges and 
kings and priests and prophets, each one of whom held a per- 
sonal divine vocation. God made Himself manifest amoner 
His people b} 7 signs and wonders innumerable — in Egypt, at 
the Red Sea, in the Wilderness, in Canaan, and in Babylon. 
He made Himself responsible for an unbroken succession of 
heirs-male in the family of Aaron for fifteen hundred years, 
and in the family of David for a thousand years, the like of 
which, considered as a fact in genealogy, has rarely occurred 
on earth. But when Judaism had finished its purposes, then 
it perished. Though divine in its origin, in its constitution as 
a church-state, and in all its laws and ordinances, though 
guarded and defended by all the powers of Heaven, yet Juda- 
ism, having done its special work as preparatory to a better 
dispensation, was taken down by its builder and maker, who 
was God. Temple, altar, the holy city, the kingly crown, the 
priestly splendor and the array of angels, all passed away like 
a moving cloud. 

Standing to-day face to face with this supreme law in hu- 
man affairs, we are bound to inquire whether the American 
3 



34 FIFTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 



- d r . if d . 

I ization Si ciety, having done, if we may reverently 8ay, 

many mighty works, shall now cease out of existence? Has it 
fulfilled the whole law of its life, and must it now submit to the 
law of dissolution ? We musl meet that question sooner or 
later: let us meet it now. Let us set before ourselves, most 
distinctly, some great endeavor not yel concluded; or let us 
submit, manfully, to the destiny of enterprises which have a 
grand history, but neither promise nor prophecy. We have 
lived in honor; now, it' our work be done, let us die with 
dignity. 

The constitution of Liberia points out the labors which yet 
remain to be undertaken — labors that are more difficult, more 
enduring, than those which have been finished. In that in- 
strument it is declared, that "the great object in forming these 
Colonies was to provide a home for the dispersed and oppressed 
children of Africa, and to regenerate and enlighten their be- 
nighted continent." (Const. Lib., art. V,sec. L3.) Eere,then, 
i- the sphere of labor into which we are ca-t : a Bphere which 
embraces two continent-. We are appointed in the providence 
id to give shape a- best we can to the destinies of live 
millions of the African race in this country, and a hundred 
millions on the other side of the sea. Is, then, our occupation 
I.''! us, just now, answer this question by referring to 
our work in Africa. 

Tic- Divine method tor the conversion of the heathen is 
clearly made known in the Word of God. The gospel is to he 
iched in all the world by the ministers of the gospel. The 
Church ha-, in all ages, conducted its foreign missions accord- 
ing to this nil.-; and after this method, and alter no other, 
'Africa LS t" I"- redeemed. To those who deem this ordinance 

unwise and insufficient in it- application to Africa, tic- answer 

mu-t he that the I'm di.-h ne-- of God IS wiser than man. and the 

weak tronger than man. But in order to give 

■ to this Divine plan of missions, special provision mu-t be 

made for conditions which are peculiar to the western and 
ral portions of that continent. These conditions have 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 35 



Address of Rev. Edward P. Humphrey, D. D. 



arisen out of slavery and the slave-trade, the hostile relations 
which have long existed between the white and colored races, 
our ignorance respecting the interior of that vast continent, 
the mortal sickliness to the white man of the Coast and of the 
river-margins, the jealousy of the half-caste Arabs and other 
Mohammedan races, the ferocity of the Pagan tribes, and the 
stupid idolatry of Eetichism. These obstacles have hitherto 
defeated the labors of the missionary. They have now been 
met, by the watchful providence of God, in the establishment 
of a free Christian Commonwealth at Liberia. 

Here we have a domain with a sea-coast of five hundred miles, 
and extending somewhat indefinitely into the interior, resemb- 
ling in shape and dimensions the region between the Atlantic 
and the Alleghenies. The territory has been honorably ac- 
quired — by purchase, by treaty, by annexation, with the consent 
of the native owners of the soil. Here is a nominally Christian 
population of fifteen or twenty thousand. Here, also, in the 
outlying districts, is a native population of about six hundred 
thousand, among whom Christian missions have been planted. 
TheLiberians have established a free Republic, described and 
defined by a written constitution. The Government is admin- 
istered by a President, a Congress in two Houses, and courts 
of justice, inferior and supreme. The Liberians have their 
periodical elections, with all the machinery of party conven- 
tions, caucuses, and contests for office. Not to be outdone by 
the sister Republic on this side of the water, the two Houses 
gravely consider cases of contested elections; they engage in 
wrangles w T hich lock for the time the wheels of legislation; 
the}- have entertained themselves with a dispute about a north- 
western boundary; and they have conferred upon their con-' 
stituents the "blessings of a national debt." More intrepid even 
than we are, the Liberians have, for cause, removed a Presi- 
dent from office, not by the process of impeachment, but by 
the act of a "sovereignty convention." When the offender 
refused to submit to the popular will, the authorities sent him 
to jail. What with these things, and with a national flag, an 



FIFTY-SIXTB ANN CM. REPORT 



ey , D. D . 



army and navy in the germ, police courts, newspapers, svorry, 
beats, and i ssness, Liberia is a genuine republic — a very 

fair imitation, on a small scale, of its model in and about Wash- 

n City. The Republic has framed treaties and exchanged 

consular and diplomatic agents with the leading Powers of the 

I »vernment has proved itself strong in peace, and 

equal to the si i*n necessities and strain of war. 1 1 is supported 

hools, a College, and lyceums. Seven denominatioi 
Christians have planted their congregations and mission along 
that Coast: seven golden candlesticks, in the midst of which, 
let u- hope, there is one that walketh who is like unto the Sod 
of Man. 

We arc now ready to answer the question, What advanti 

Liberia afford to Christian Missions in Africa? Liberia 
is not a church, nor is it. strictly so called, a missionary settle- 
ment; nor has its Government any of the functions either of 
<,■ of a missionary society. 1; has no authorityto 
j spel, or to establish churches among the heathen 

within or bey ind its borders. It is simply a State, a Christian 
State, originated for the purpose of securing "the bl< ; 

the Christian religion, and political, religious, and civil liberty." 
relations of Liberia to the redemption of Africa may be 
I ii the first place, it gives to the Church afoot- 
fa ipon t ii'- • dge of the continent and access to the interior. 
I tphical form of Africa Beems, in its own peculiar way, 

I ;-n influences. The Mediterranean Coast ap- 

f civilization; but that border is sep- 
a I from the interior by the barrier of the Great Desert. 
; • ast, along which it fronts o ir own continent, 

I cean no important cape or peninsula, norany- 

when . gates to receive the waters of the sea into 

! ba} - or sounds. That long line of Coast is n lieved 

nor harbors worthy of the name. Its low 
sunken shores are indented with rivers, but their mouths are 
filled with sand-bars. U would seem that the Creator had 
intern I the inhabitants of those regions from the 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 37 



Address of Rev, Edward P. Ilumjthr c y , 1> . I). 



ferocity of the slave-trade by the barrier of a dreary and inhos- 
pitable sea-border. But when the time came, the same august 
Providence planted midway from the Straits of Gibraltar to the 
Cape of Good Hope a Christian Commonwealth. Liberia now 
offers to the Church a permanent foothold on the margin of its 
wide held of missionary labor — a place where it may lay down 
securely the base line of its future operations in the now un- 
known regions of Equatorial Africa. This is one of the facilities 
afforded by Liberia to the cause. 

There is another. The citizens of the new Republic are exclu- 
sively colored people. The white man is disfranchised by an 
express provision of the constitution. This rule puts a wide 
difference between the settlement of Cape Mesurado and the 
settlements effected at Plymouth and Jamestown. Our fathers 
came to America to prepare a new home for themselves and 
their children. They did not propose to incorporate the abo- 
rigines into the body politic. They purchased the territory for 
their own use and occupancy, with the stipulation that the In- 
dian tribes should remove from the lands, and give to the white 
settlers exclusive possession. Our fathers sought the conver- 
sion of the natives, but rarely with the intent to bestow on 
their converts the privileges of citizenship. The end of all 
this is, that the native tribes on this continent have melted 
away in the presence of the white race, until our Indian prob- 
lem is likely to be solved by the extinction of the aborigines. 
But the law of Liberia, not the organic law of the Republic 
only, but the law of climate, the law of common origin and con- 
sanguinity, the character impressed upon the Colony from the 
beginning — every part of the original plan of its founders — 
looks to opposite results. The citizens are of the same color 
and race and affinities with their heathen neighbors. The whole 
policy of the State, working now slowly perhaps, is directed to 
the preservation of the natives ; to their education, secular and 
religious; to their full enfranchisement as citizens; to their 
equality before the law ; to their social equality; and ultimately 



38 FIFTY SIXTH ANM'AL FFFOUT 



rard P. Humphrey, D. D. 



to Hi*' processes of nature by which the colonists and natives 
shall be fused down together in one common Bociety. 

These things being so, it is difficult to set limits to the ex- 
pansion of the Commonwealth, by the annexation of the out- 
lying territories and tribes far towards Central Africa. How 
rapidly that expansion should be allowed to lake place is a 
serious problem. It is one of the highest opportunities of our 
Society to aid in the best solution of that problem, by sending 
to Liberia, from year to year, large companies of intelligent 
Christian emigrants. Through them we shall invigorate the 
State at the seat of lite, and shall enable the Republic both 
to extend its borders and Stimulate its vital energies: at once 
to lengthen its cords and strengthen its stakes 

We must look to Liberia, thirdly, to furnish the men and 
women who shall carry the gospel to the Mohammedan king- 
doms and Pagan tribes of Africa. This consideration rests 
upon the insalubrity of the climate to white men. The facts 
which belong to this part of the case are familiar to us all. It 
is known that ••the Roman Catholic missionaries labored in 
Western Africa for two hundred and fourteen years; but every 
vestige of their influence has been gone for many generations. 
An English attempt at Bulama 1 -lam I, in L792, partly missionary 
in its character, was abandoned in two years, with tin- I — of 
a hundred lives. There were eighteen Protestant missionary 
attempt- before the settlement of Liberia, all of which failed." 
Mi-. Edward Everett, in his admirable address before this So- 
ciety just twenty year- ago, said: "When that most noble 
expedition, 1 think in 1841, was fitted out under the highest 
auspices in England, to found an agricultural colony at the 
confluence of the Niger and the Chad, out of one hundred and 
forty-five white persons that formed a part of it, one hundred 
and thirty sickened and forty died. On the other ha ml, out of 
tie- Mm- hundred ami fifty-eighj color, ',1 men that formed part 

of the expedition only eleven sickened, and they Were men 

who had pa-se<| some years in the Weal [ndies and in Europe, 

and not one died." 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 39 



Address of Rev. Edward P. Humphr ey , D. D. 

Now, we must take the case as we find it. The white man, 
whether intent on gain or on some better or more enduring 
substance, meets terrors on that Coast which are too strong 
for him. His blood is poisoned by the exhalations from jun- 
gles, from mangrove thickets, from tepid and putrid swamps. 
The vertical sun smites him with its fiery darts. On the other 
hand, the colored man, although born in this country, en- 
counters but few of these perils. 

An instructive series of facts appears in the Report of this 
Society just adopted. Fifty-two ordained ministers of the 
gospel are now laboring in Liberia. All but one are colored 
men. Of these, only two were sent out from this country as 
missionaries. Liberia itself furnished the fifty out of its own 
population. ' Six of these are converts from the heathen tribes; 
forty-four were found among the Liberian colonists. In addi- 
tion to these, the Christian missions there employ ninety men 
and women, not ordained, nearly all of whom are Liberians — 
emigrants from this country or their children. This single 
fact carries away all doubts before it. It teaches us that in 
proportion as we multiply the emigrants from this country, 
we multiply also the Christian laborers. 

Then we come to the native-born Africans. These children 
of the soil and the sun — by the subtle chemistry of their 
organs of life, separate from the tainted air its sweeter influ- 
ences. From the descending floods of the tropical rains, they 
take only the waters that quench their thirst. From the rays 
of the tropical sun, they gather a cheerful light and grateful 
warmth. We must look to Liberia, to its churches and schools 
and colleges, for the men who shall receive the divine vocation 
to carry the gospel to the innermost regions of the continent: 
men fitted tor their work by the grace of God, by physical 
peculiarities, and by the sympathies and affinities of a com- 
mon lineage. 

From this train of thought the transition is easy to another. 
In order to the redemption of Africa, a thorough exploration 
of the interior is necessary. For this enterprise Liberia must 



i I FIFTY-SIXTB ANNUAL REPORT 



I w a r d P. II a nt p A /•-•_(/ , D 

furnish both the point of departure and the explorers. The 
:. shows for the midlands of Africa a blank space, covering 
millions of square miles, designated as " Unknown Regions," 
ieved by imaginary mountains, lakes, and rivers. This is 
tanding reproach of geographical science. Pour thousand 
- the caravans traversed the Arabian desert from the 
■ irranean to the Euphrates. A.n active commerce between 
pe and India has for centuries found an open way by the 
Re i Sea and the [ndian Ocean. The discovery of the Cape of 
G . Eope four hundred years ago offered another route by 
sea to India. The expeditions from the Wesl passed along the 
northern border of Africa; and the navigators of the Atlantic, 
sailing west and south, gave a wide berth to the continent. 
No honorable traffic despatched its caravans into its inti 
It was a huge barrier, not a pathway or a field of commercial 
enterprise. Africa was turned over to the slave-trade. That 
laid waste th ro • ed out the industry, both in 

a ulture and the useful arts of the native tribes; burned 
their villages, plunged them into a state of merciless war — 
war to the knife and spear, to the poisoned arrow, to the 
branding-iron and the hand-cuff. The country was desolated 
for thousands of miles, and the survivors of the captives and 
the slain sank into barbarism. Their acquired ferocity, un- 
natural even to savages, together with the insalubrity ol the 
climate, has hitherto hindered exploration in Western and 

1 a. 

We kn ■■ something about South Africa and the region of 
the Nile. The world is waiting with impatience i<m- Living- 
stone's brilliant discoveries near the fountains ol Herodotus. 
Let us hope that wo shall receive from him something better 
than a story ol im re personal adventure. We need to hear 
ng more from expeditions fitted "tit for the capture of 
and giraffes and zebras and gorillas. African travi 
in narratives which are perhaps true, if not i" their expei ience 
at least to their imaginations, delineate filthy negro villages, 
rivers Bwarming with hippopotami seventeen feet long, and 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 41 



Address of Rev. Edward /'. Humphrey, I) . D. 

forests alive with elephants ten or twelve feet high. They 
describe, in letter-press and wood-cuts, crocodiles and lizzards 
and earwigs and tsetse-flies, and half-caste Arabs trading in 
ivory and slaves with Zanzibar. And this is nearly all the 
knowledge which they give to us about large portions of \ friea. 
Its effect is to keep alive in the popular mind a feeling of con- 
tempt for the plans which are devised to redeem a hundred 
millions of our fellow-men from barbarism. 

In the meantime, however, some accurate and useful infor- 
mation is gradually leaking out. We have reason to expect 
thai we shall, ere long, receive from Livingstone the knowl- 
edge of one of the most wonderful portions of the earth — the 
lacustrine region — wonderful for its natural scenery, its fer- 
tility, and its advantages as a seat of empire. We hear also 
from Western and Contral Africa of a group of kingdoms, five 
or six in number, along the southern border of Sahara, some 
of which have been in existence for more than a thousand 
years. They are well advanced in Mohammedan civilization. 
The}' contain wide districts of fertile and beautiful country, 
towns and villages, and vast fields of cotton, rice, and corn. 
The people weave cloth, they work in iron, they make agri- 
cultural instruments, domestic utensils, and weapons of war. 
They collect gold dust, the}' express palm oil, they gather 
ivory. They have schools, where the pupils are taught to read 
the Koran and to write in the Arabic character. The country 
is salubrious to the native races. Its surface rises into high- 
lands, and is adorned with tropical beauty. In the Report 
submitted to-day, we have the description of a mountainous 
region, within one hundred and twenty miles of the Liberian 
Coast, where the air is cool and sweet; where walled towns 
are buill upon an elevation of two thousand feet above tin; 
level of the sea; and where the fertility of tin' tropics is com- 
bined with the salubrity of the temperate zones. On the other 
hand, the districts south of these kingdoms are almost un- 
known, and they await the visit of intelligent explorers. We 
have a right to expect that the Liberians will take upon them- 



12 FIFTY-SIX I'll ANNUAL REPORT 



• i> . 

selves the honors and labors of :i thorough exploration of the 
dow hidden from the civilized world. 

One other golden opportunity will in due time presenl itself 
to Liberia — the creation <'t':i new civilization. No empire, no 
trical race, Worthy to be so described, has yet sprung up 
between the tropics. No illustrious man, Mohammed only ex- 
cepted, has been born beneath the vertical sun. Nor has any 
form of Christian civilization arisen within the vast equa- 
torial belt, extending through three continents and covering 
more than forty degrees of latitude. The redemption of Af- 
rica must in its progress originate new empires of power and 
mind. The type of civilization to I"- created musl of necessity 
be altogether new and peculiar, because its constituent ele- 
ments have never before been brought together. Its mate- 
rials will be exclusively the African races. It- territorial seat 
will be the African equatorial /.one. But its traditions, Borne 
of them grateful, some of them painful, will be taken from 
America; its form of government, lei as hope, will be free; 
and its spiritual forces will be derived from the Christian relig- 
ion. Jt would be difficult to foreshow the precise form which 
this new civilization will assume. It will resemble our own, 
bo far as our own ideas ol liberty and law, our Bystems of gov- 
ernment and jurisprudence and education, our habits and cus- 
toms, and above all our Protestant faith, shall project them- 
selves V v Africa. It will differ from our own so tar as 
the social forces arc controlled by climate, soil, dress, dwellings, 
ises and the aspects of tie- seasons, by the absence of 
winter, by the perpetual glow of summer, by the causes which 
increase the supplies and lessen the wants of the people. 

Jt i- an auspicious sign thai a Christian nation i> rising at 
Liberia, to take a leading part in shaping the new civili- 
zation, lie- Greek colonists, in their migrations, carried with 
them the sacred tire which burned in the town-hall of their 
native city. From this they kindled a flame in the hall of 
their colonial city, and if extinguished, it was lighted again 
from it-, original source in the mother country. Let u- hope 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 43 



Address of Rev. R. H. Nassau, M. D. 

that the sacred fire which has heen taken from our own Chris- 
tian sanctuaries may hum brightly on a thousand altars in 
the new land of promise beyond the seas. Are we over-san- 
guine when we anticipate the rise of a splendid intertropical 
civilization, instinct with the life drawn from the gospel? 

Such is our answer to the question, Is our occupation gone? 
Our most arduous labors are only now just begun. Our first 
half centuiy has been fruitful in noble results. Our second half 
century brings us into the presence of grave responsibilities 
and unending toils. We must strengthen Liberia, by sending 
thither every year hundreds of our colored citizens, picking 
our men as best we may; by encouraging agriculture, the 
common arts of life, and skilled labor; by fostering the institu- 
tions of religion, learning, and good government; by cherish- 
ing there and here a far-seeing solicitude with respect to the 
relations -between the citizens of Liberia and their heathen 
neighbors; — and by committing all these immense interests to 
the care of that Great Being who has hitherto helped us. 
Nearly three thousand colored people to-day implore our 
Society to send them to Liberia. Twenty thousand free citi- 
zens in that young Republic await their coming. One hundred 
millions in Africa are perishing for the Bread of Life. Let ub 
consider our duties. Let us be true to our obligations. 



ADDRESS OF REV. R. H. NASSAU, M. D., 

MISSIONARY AT CORISCO, WESTERN AFRICA. 

Your interest is claimed for Africa, whether you view with 
the eye of historian, geographer, ethnographer; of merchant, 
botanist, zoologist; of philosopher, philanthropist, or Christian. 
With an animal kingdom, in its variety, greater than of any 
other country: its lion, giraffe, rhinoceros; its ostrich, hippopot- 
amus, elephant, and gorilla, and other animals common with 
it to other countries. With a flora only just touched ; with 
minerals, probably as numerous as in other lands, hidden by 



;i FIFTY-SI X I'll ANNUAL REPORT 



.1/. D . 

■ ■. waiting only the band of occasion to develop them. 
There are the diamond fields of South Africa, and the g 

tains of the Kong, at the sources of the Niger, 
"sunny fountains" and "golden sands" of Bishop 

r's beautiful hymn are no1 a myth or romance; they are 
ami shall be historic. At Accra and along the Ashanti Coast 
the native- appear with nuggets of gold braided in their hair, 
and on their fingers and in their ears gold ornaments of their 
own handiwork, made from the particles gal hered in the many 
streams flowing from fountains in interior gold mountains, 
around which native superstition has thrown fantastic terrors 
of genii as of the Arabian Nights, lest the white man should 
penetrate thither. Bui the black man shall. Scarcely a home- 
ward teamer to England but carries some of this gold 
as pari <>i' her cargo. You have read in Stanley's accounl of 
Livii ! thrilling story the report of the Una copper 
mines in Central Equatorial Africa. There are both gold and 
iron mine- behind the mountains of Musardu, back of Liberia. 
On my own Benita premises, near the Equator, in digging a 
well for water, it was found bo impregnated with iron, that, 

• for medicinal purposes, it was unfit for use. Across 
the r< ef of rocks on the point in front oi my house 1 had often 
observed a narrow black line, which I had assumed was slate. 
Picking at it one day with a penknife, 1 saw it break with a 
Bhining fracture, and holding a piece in thetire.it burned as 
bituminous coal. It was but a narrow vein, no thicker than 
my finger, and how deeply it may run or how widely it may 
Bpread, 1 do nol know; but it was there. I have been told 
that coal crop-, out on the hank- of the .Muni, one of the rivers 
that empty into Corisco Bay. I have seen and handled the 
. g and other weapons of the Fangw 
tribe, so accun cribed by Du < !haillu, made of iron from 

ore Bmelted and worked by themselves. With productions- 
ebony, ivory, he. •-wax, dyewoods, india-rubber and other 
gums, and ]. aim-oil — from which, unstimulated and gathered 
only from the narrow Beaboard strip as yet developed, is built 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 45 

Address of Rev. A'. U. Nassau, M. D. 

up, under British monopoly, a rich trade, whoso profits have set 
afloat weekly lines of Scotch and English iron screw-steamers 
to thai West Coast of the Land of the Palm. 

Such a country, situate in three zones, has been lying between 
two civilizations — the old of the East, and the newer one of our 
West — and touched by them both only for oppression ; hut 
awaiting its elevation and regeneration under the arm of (rod, 
which already shows itself in the hands stretching out from 
those civilizations — hands on the plains of Syria to-day, send- 
ing the Arabic Bible and tracts and other books to the Arabic- 
speaking peoples of Northern and Western Central Africa; 
and hands from these American shores, bearing light and com- 
fort, where once we spread darkness and sorrow. 

Africa's elevation shall be b}~ two means — 

First. By Christian missions. All along the West ('oast, from 
the Gambia and Senegal, at Sherbro, on the St. Paul's, the 
Cavalla, at Cape Coast, at Lagos, in the Bight of Benin, on the 
yellow Niger, at Bonny, at Calabar, on the Benita, at Corisco, 
on the Gaboon, and in Congo, Christian missionaries have 
brought to error, Truth, and like the Republic of Liberia have 
played their part in stopping, better than squadrons on the 
sea, the slave-trade nearer its sources. 

Missions in Africa have, compared with other countries, 
an advantage, in that the native African is receptive. (1) He 
is so physically. My Southern Guinea people are friendly and 
hospitable. You may go with me into their villages, and al- 
though they are all armed with either spear or gun or knife or 
sword or poisoned arrow, those weapons are not for you. You 
are looked up to as a member of a superior race. You enter the 
village public-room of the huts lining the sides of the one 
long Street, and take the best seat. Even a certain seat, occu- 
pied only by the principal men of the family, you may take 
without offence to them and with dignity to yourself. You 
will be offered the best of their rude hospitality. You shall 
not have to ask, " Will you sell a chicken ?" or '• Will you sell 



16 FIFTY-SO 111 ANNUAL REPORT 

, M. D. 

me that plantain?" The chicken will In- caught, ami the plan- 

. ill I"- tut. ami they laid at your feet voluntarily, appar- 
i ^it't, ami you may direct about their being c< 
1 ■ mrse the next morning, on leaving tin- village, you will 
privately give t<> the " head-man " a " dash " , present equal in 
value u> about twice what you received. But all this i> pleas- 
anter and more hospitable than if you had to bargain and 
chaffer for entertainment. (2) The African is receptivi 

■hi. He has no rigid system of tbeologic thought to which 

attached, and an attack on which he feels bound to resist. 
He has his vague, superstitious ideas of witchcraft, to which 

ogs only s>» far as they are bound up in customs. The 
Chinaman meets you with the stolid morality of his ( Jonfucian- 
ism ; the Hindoo with astute logic for his Pantheism. The mis- 
sionary among those peoples is assaulting strongholds, bristling 
with guns and bayonets. When I carry my torch into the 
caves of Africa, I meet only filthy birds of darkness, hats, owls, 
and evil wings of night, that, bewildered by the light, know 
not how to blunder out, or out. blunderingly dash themselves 
in again. 

disadvantages in African missions arise from (1 the 
■. by whichagreat number of tribes 
are produced. < >ne's influence is apt to be circumscribed. A 
3 to labor in its limits and gives ns rigl 
But we are practical captives if we attempt perma- 
nent residence in or make more than mere itinerations to ad- 

• interior tribi 3. \ >t that the Coast tribe objects to the 
ing carried elsewhere ; but with their intense clannish- 

and jealousy of other tribes — down upon whom they look 
with Contempt and whom they call •■ hii-hiuen " — they object 
to their sharing with themselves the honor of the white man's 
i and the money that flows in the white man's path. 

1 difficulty is slowly disappearing before our judicious abid- 
,. quisition of personal influence; and a growth 

w public opinion. An assumed difficulty, arising from 
the variety of dialect- spoken by these different tribes, is but 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 47 



Address of Rev. R. II. Nassau, M. I> . 



Blight. The language of South Africa — as far us travelers' re- 
ports of words, names and phrases indicate — are, south of 3° 
north latitude, all cognate. Most adjacent tribes readily under- 
stand each other ; and an acquaintance by a foreigner with one 
dialect enahles him, on a few month's, or at most a year's resi- 
dence, in a new locality, to acquire the dialect spoken there. 

(2) A greater difficulty lies in the absence of a responsible 
native government. This at first might seem an advantage, in 
that there is no central power, as in the case of Madagascar, 
to persecute converts. But the evils that arise to us and to 
the native Christians from the hand of individual violence, 
from whose transgressions the anarchy of the country fur- 
nishes no appeal for protection, are greater than would flow 
from the possible opposition of a strong central government. 

(3) The disintegration of society — the unformed state of the 
social relations — the absence of the famil}*, (it cannot exist 
perfectly where polygamy lives,) are unfavorable to industry. 
I said to one of my church members, " You caught two baskets- 
ful of fish to-day; why do you not dry the surplus from your 
supper, and keep them against a rainy day? Or, why do you 
not go to the forest and cut a bokume tree and split it into 
boards? I shall want some in a few months to floor a room. 
Or, why do you not go and split bamboo and make thatch? 
I shall want to buy some time." "My father," he said, (for 
they call all us gentlemen "father," and all the ladies "mother,") 
"what is the use? If I work, others will waste my gains. 
If there are fish in my house, I shall be visited until they are 
eaten up. If I keep on hand boards, my neighbor who wants 
to make a door or window will beg for them, and I dare not 
sa}' no. If I have a pile of ngonja, (thatch,) every hut in the 
village has a hole in the roof, and the people will borrow, but 
never pay. What can I do ?" And it is so. I pity t he few who 
desire to economize and are willing to labor. They have no 
encouragement in a regular system of interchange of arts and 
manufactures, from which to reap industry's reward. 



I- FIFTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 

, R. II Na a $a u , if. D. 

Second. And here comes in the band of < livilization to aid the 
work of Missions. The distinction is made only for the sake 
of discussion ; for all thai is good in civilization is the out- 
growth of the Gospel. And for the share the American Col- 
onization Society is doing in Africa's civilization, I thank you. 

5Tour Society has for its work advantages. I li advan- 
ii-ly unites to the Church, the workshop; to the sermon, 
the tool ; to the school-house, the farm. As a Christian mis- 
sionary teacher, I enforce on my church members the duty of 
industry as a part of their Christianity. When I take their 
own bamboo-palm, and show them how to build a betti mse, 
or work with their boards to make a better bed or make a 
table or chair, I am doing good missionary Bervice. Bu1 what 
I thus attempt to do with one finger, yon, whenever you aid 
Christian emigrants to Africa, do with a mass of fingers. (2) 
You have an advantage in the locality of Liberia. Th tribes 
included within the limits of that Republic an aded 

than those at the Equator. There is the energy of the Krao 
tribe, speaking the Grebo language, at Cape Palmas. There is 
no Coasl tribe like them tor physical development; .-one- of 
them are herculean in strength. Very few of them have been 
slaves They are skillful seamen, and all steamers, while on 
the Coast, relieve their white sailors by taking a temporary 
crew of " Ivru-boys." They are the porters and boatmen at 
all the trading stations. Mack of Liberia, and even in the 
; Monrovia to-day, are the Mandingoes spirited, 
almost semi-civilized in dress and arts, Arabic-speaking 
and reading Pagano-Mohammedans. .'! Though in some 
parts ol Africa the taint of slavery thai would cling to 
the American negro might, in the eyes of the natives, work 
^advantage as a missionary alongside of his white 
associat< this difficulty would nol exist at all with his fel- 
loe Liberians, and in other parts of Africa would be coun- 
terbalanced by the advantage for life which the negro has 
over the while man in the color of his skin. In saying 
this, ! wish to controvert two extreme statements that are 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 49 

Address of Rev . R. H. Na s s a u , M. D . 

b 

sometimes flatly made, viz, that the white man cannot live in 
Africa, and that the negro does not sicken under its malaria. 
Neither of these statements is unreservedly true. Residence 
there is not necessarily fatal for the white. The lives of four 
living members of the Gaboon and Corisco mission, extending 
over thirty, twenty-eight, seventeen, and eleven years, and of 
others in other missions on other parts of the Coast, and my own 
healthful children born there, prove the possibility of living 
there. But it is accomplished by an amount of care, prudence, 
forethought and expense not common to most missionaries. I 
explain the sad list of deaths that mark the history, especially 
the earlier, of African missions, by reference to the character 
of dwelling and locality — modes of eating and living — igno- 
rance of disease and mode of cure — by the depression arising 
from extreme isolation and other causes — and the want of medi- 
cal attendance. Give us even a portion of the comforts you 
have — give to our ladies companionship of a female friend, 
medicine, nurse, doctor, and to us all even a slight knowledge 
of disease and its remedy, and we can live and combat for a 
term of years the malaria — a malaria from whose influence the 
negro — not even the native — is not entirel}' free. The negi*o of 
this country, with his Americanized constitution, does feel its 
effects distinctly. Still the fact remains that he can stand it 
better than I. Give me two men of equal capability and at- 
tainment and consecration, one black and the other white; I 
promptly say to the former, you ought to go first, because. 
however we may account for it, God has given you a skin 
which in the natui'e of things will suffer less than the other. 
If then asked why I went to Africa, or why I return thither, 
I reply, that though there be American negroes of capacity 
equal with their white brother, they do not seem to have the 
devotion of spirit that consents to missionary privations. I 
went to Africa for the present stress and necessity. When 
some of these capable black men shall be baptized with a spirit 
of consecration, and made willing by God's Spirit to go and do 
and bear, my work shall be done. 
4 



FIFTY-SIX 111 ANNUAL REPOET 



4 

Vniir Society works under the disadvantages of (1) the 
from some, who, with a memory of the days of 

py, call it :ui "Abolition" Bociety ; and from many of the 
colon 'I people, I and unfortunately some of th>- educated i 
u bo, rejoicing in their new-found political equality, call ii a " 1 >e- 
portation" Bociety. This antipathy of the American negro 
should be conciliated. The name " Colonization" is unfortu- 
nate. You did- plant a I once. But now that Colony has 
grown to be a Republic, and stands among the nation-; of the 
earth, you are an African-Aid Society. Moreover, the Ameri- 
can negro is sensitive to expatriation. As much as 1, he is 
American in birth, feelings; associations, and citizenship. Jiut 
that citizenship, in spite of whatever fraternal feeling you or 
1 may have individually, does not give and cannot give in this 
country that social equality without which any man or any 

will fail to demonstrate capability or fulfil the highest 
destiny. The c< ilored man of America will recognize this - 
daw and will turn to Liberia as bis best hope, as once, in days 
ivery, it was his only hope; nol of freedom, but of politi- 
cal, civil ami social equality. 2 The inefficiency of the instru- 

used is a disadvantage. Your Society has worked with, 
to say the least, materials, for the most part, indifferent. Li- 
beria is a success; but my wonder is, not that in any point she 

or lacks, but that with the poverty of purse, mind., and 
heart, of the mass of the emigrants, there lias been built even 
I praise to-day. One,', in day- of -lav.-iy 

ty, in philanthropy, was constrained to aid to Africa and 

• m all who applied, irrespective of their character or 
their influence on the native Africans, or of the latter on them. 
with the thousands who apply for the hem-tit of your 
aid, those who do not wish to go are not invited; and to those 
who do wish, you will be able Co prescribe a moral or educational 
test in selection. 

us come then to a new departure I The Missionary Board 
sends the man as a Christian teacher; the American 

I 3 _. [g a mechanic a- a civili/cr. When 



* • 



AMEKICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 51 

Address of Hon. Horace Maynard. 

the Board shall add to tho clerical company the- mechanic, and 
when the Society shall see that each emigrant mechanic is 
practically an exponent of Christianity, then both the Board 
and the Society shall each accomplish in highest measure the 
objects of their organization. On that lino I see light for 
Africa, in the future, but not distant. 

Light for the future! By river o'er hill, 
The promise of good each year shall fulfil ; 
" We stretch out the hand," shall Africa sing, 
Salvation to crave and tribute to bring. 

" Spero meliora!"* hear Commerce proclaim, 
We better things trust through a Crucified Name, 
When nevermore purchased thy children shall be, 
And thy harvests respond to the toil of the free. 

Free ! from the chains Superstition has bound ; 
Free! from the stains which thy Vices have found; 
Free! f"om the Guilt of the innocent blood; 
Free ! from the rags thou hast worshiped as God. 

Light for the future ! o'er mountain and dale ; 

Light for the future ! by forge and by rail ; 

Light for the future ! through Church and through State ; 

Light for the future ; where ransomed ones wait. 



ADDRESS OF HON. HORACE MAYNARD. 

Mr. President and Gentlemen op the Society: I liave little 
to add. The topics I had meditated have chiefly been dis- 
cussed, with thought better matured and in language more 
fitting than I can command. You and tho other speakers have 
anticipated me. It could hardly be otherwise, in treating a 
subject so old, and about which so little is known. For the 
Continent of Africa has been the problem of the ages. Ex- 
tending over a fourth of the habitable globe, with an estimated 
population equal to that of all America, rich in tho treasured 
wealth of nature — the gold, the ivory, the palm-oil, gems of 

» .Motto on the coat-of-arms of the British African Mail Steamship Company. 



ril-TV SO I'll ANNUAL REPORT 



..' 



beauty, ami herbs of power — it lias remained a mysterious and 
puzzling secret to the historic world. An eminent explorer 
disappeared several years ago in its unknown recesses, leaving 
all civilization perplexed to discover whether he was living or 
. till an adventurer from our own country penetrated the 
n of his heroic labors, and returned with the tid 
Even thru, many of the best-informed pi ople hesitated to ac- 
cept the narrative as true, until it was confirmed by sensible 
Singularly enough, the most intelligent were the 
most incredulous; their light was hut dark' 

f he enterprise of the Portuguese navigators near the 
of the fifteenth century, and the subsequent maritime opera- 
tions of commerce, have pretty well ascertained the exterior 
•aphy of the Continent. Beyond this it is doubtful wh 
- much known to-day a- it was three i housand yean 

series are verified by Berodotus and Strabo, 
whose descriptions wer merations treated as fab) 

myth-. Dr. Livingstone i- understood t" regard himself hut 
iscoverer, bringing to light once more what was known 
to the ancient world. Darkness, thick darkness, scare* 
i i ha- from the beginning brooded over the vas 

of savage lite, ferocious heasts. and degraded men. 
1 who believe in the ultimate triumph of Christianity and 

Christian civilization h turn from the weary present to the more 
hopeful future, eager to know how and how long. 

3 are m>t migratory. They build no ships, and 

X ot leaving their own < lontinei 

upon compulsion, and their inhospitable climate repelling the 

| other land-, they have had little intercourse with 

: i - of men. By violence only have a tew thou- 

■ from time t.i time, been forced away into distant, hope- 
less, and unreturning bondage. Shall we wonder that they 
the h-a-t favorable type of tin- human 
family, approaching nearer than all others to the inferior or- 
ders "i animal life, an 1 unmixed with higher Mood, or unsup- 
I 1 by the presence and example ol a superior race, inca- 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 53 

Address of Hon. Horace Maynard. 

pable of anything great, generous, or noble? Science has been 
invoked, and much learning exhausted, to 'prove that they 
sprang from a different centre of population, or at least are 
still lingering in an earlier stage of progressive development. 

If wo may accept as history the narrative of Father Las 
Casas, and his benevolent scheme of substituting the humble 
African for the oppressed and over-burdened Indian, as a 
menial to the high-mettled spirits who first discovered the 
"Western Continent, the age of American slavery is something 
over three hundred years. Within the limits of the United 
States its duration did not much exceed two hundred years. 
Then — shall we say in the fullness of time? — it came t© an 
end in a way that no man, the wisest, had ever foreseen. 
In a dreadful time of convulsion, bloodshed, and carnage, 
emancipation was proclaimed as a necessity, and acquiesced 
in as such. Thus freedom came to the bondman: on his part 
an unsought boon, costing him no effort, and without a 
struggle. 

But what a contrast had been wrought by these' two centu- 
ries! The negroes had been brought to our shores by thou- 
sands; they now were numbered by millions. They had come 
here savages, they were now civilized. The language, habits, 
customs, and religion which they brought from their heathen 
abodes had given place to the English language, to the Chris- 
tian religion, and to the habits and customs of English-speak- 
ing Christian people. They had learned to plant, to build, 
to mine and reduce the ores, and to fashion the metals into 
forms of utility, to treat the domestic animals, to make leather 
and cloth, and to convert them into shoes and clothing, and, 
not least, to cook. They could read, write, and print, and 
were familiar with the usages of the best society; and, above 
all, they had mastered the great lesson of thorough self-con- 
trol. This is civilization. I know not where, in the annals of 
the race, to find a change so rapid, a metamorphosis so com- 
plete. Account for it who will, reason about it how we may, 
call it Providence, or the progress of the species, I have no 



FIFTY-SIXTH ANNI'AI, RBPOET 
Horace J/ a y nard. 

", to propound, do explanation to offer. I prefer but to 
the t'uris, no Less obvious than remarkable, 
years have elapsed since emancipation was proclaimed. 
During that period the conduct of the freedmen has been 
- imething marvelous. Their patience in waiting for actual de- 
li vera nee; their singular good nature, and the absence of cruel 
and vindictive sentiments; their self-restraint underthe greatest 
provocations; their clear perception of the situation; their 
eagerness for learning and the acquisition of property; their 
appreciation of the new order of things; and their unalterable 
purpose to maintain their liberty, have been so conspicuous, as 
to lift them up immeasurably in the universal estimation. At 
first the wisest doubted. Emancipation was an experiment. 
kind of novitiate was talked of. A protecting bureau 
was organized. With much hesitation, and reluctantly, civil 
rights were secured, and political privileges granted. Who 
shall say that the former have been abused, or the latter in- 
considerately exercised? If the slave may be regarded as an 
apprentice, the freedman is a journeyman. In a thousand ways 
he is becoming familiar with his new duties a-^ a citizen. By 
the laws of slavery, the family relations could not exist. The 
husband could have no wife, the wife could have no husband, 
and neither could have children. All belonged to a common 
master. To organize families and establish homes, so that the 
old might provide for the young, and the young take care of the 
ulii, v. the firsl and mosi urgenl duties of emancipa- 

tion. As the head of a family, a householder, freeholder, elector, 
law-giver, and magistrate — in a word, a citizen of the Republic, 
1 submit, the freedman has borne himself with great credit; 
far better, indeed, than his mosi partial friends had a right 

.;.•■'•! or did And I hesitate not to affirm that 

the four million- of emancipated American slaves are im- 

jqperior to any other four millions that could 

i out of the estimated one hundred million sons of 

Africa. Without venturing to interpret, much less anticipate, 

the divine economy, 1 yel confess that my chief hope for the 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 55 

Address of Hon. Horace Maynard. 

* — — 

regeneration of Africa is these same four millions of her de- 
scendants. 

The inquiry is pertinent alike to the subject and the occasion, 
how far Liberia will be a means to this important end. There 
is no disguising that with the mass of the colored people in 
this country that settlement has not been a favorite enterprise. 
If other evidence were needed, it is found in the small attendance 
of them here to-night and at similar meetings in years past. 
Arguments have been sometimes adduced from certain sup- 
posed incidental results of colonization, winch I readily per- 
ceive would wound their self-respect and impair their confidence. 
And wise men sometimes allow a cause to be prejudiced by the 
personal character of its advocates and the insufficiency of 
their reasons. 

But let it bo understood, once for all, that nothing which 
exalts the race and shows it capable of great things, whether 
in action, or self-denial, or patient endurance, can fail to benefit 
every individual of it the world over. Of course it is neither 
expected nor desired that the colored people of this country 
should emigrate en masse to Africa or elsewhere. None should 
go unwillingly, or without the hope of bettering their condi- 
tion. I speak not of those impelled by a high sense of duty. 
Let there be no repining, no yearning for the delights of the 
old civilization, like those which reproached the Hebrew 
exodus. Only the strong should venture — strong in soul as 
well as in body. Moses could forego the social and political 
advantages of royalty in the most refined court of his time, 
and cast in his fortunes with his own proscribed and hated 
people. Moses was a hero, and the lustre of his name is a 
glory in the soul of every Jew upon the face of the earth. 
They who aspire no higher than to a seat in the dress circle 
of theatres, or a ticket to the saloons of fashion, will never 
make heroes, nor do much for the redemption of a race. Such 
had better not attempt it. 

There are two facts in our recent history to which I invite 
the attention of the thoughtful. The same Congress which de- 



56 FIFTY-SIXTH ANNUAL RBPOET 

Ho n . 11 " r a c < Ma y n a rd. 

• 

; the emancipation of the Blavea in the District of Columbia 
tiized by a public act the national independence of Liberia. 
And the adminisl rati' mi which has since ratified the last amend- 
ment to the Constitution of the United States has selected a 
black man as our diplomatic representative to that country. 
Both of these measures had my hearty support, as tending to 
elevate the colored race, and to give a wider scope to their 
energies. 

The .Minister to Liberia, Eon. Mr. Turner, is a stranger to 
me personally, but 1 learn that he is a citizen of Missouri, and 
was educated at Oberlin, Ohio. His dispatches to the Secre- 
tary of State have I n kindly submitted to my inspection, 

and advanced sheets of some of them furnished me, now going 
through the press, and soon to be published. 1 have read 
them with interest, as the impressions nol merely of a colored 
man — we have often heard colored men upon the same topics — 
but of one who was understood not to be favorably prepos- 
- — ed. 1 hold in my hand a dispatch, received at the State 
Department on the 8th of July last, bearing date at Monrovia 
the25thofthe pre'ceding May. It presents in some detail •• the 
national capacities, present condition, and future prospects of 
Liberia." At the risk of taxing your patience I will read a few 
extracts: 

"This Republic occupies about six hundred miles of that 
part of this Coast so universally admitted to be better adapted 
to the rapid progress of civilization than any A frican territory 
north of the equator and south of the southern boundary line 
of tin- great desert of Sahara. By some, whose wide experience 
upon this Coast well qualifies them for a reliable opinion, the 
Liberian territory i- pronounced the most desirable of any 
portion of West A frica." 

* * * * * # * 

Che interior presents a country as picturesque in appear- 
ance as it is inviting in all its aspects; a line undulating re- 

, abounding in streams and rivulets, and said by those 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 57 

Address of Hon. Horace Maynard. 

who have traveled extensively interiorward to be quite salu- 
brious and healthful, being comparatively free from the deadly 
influence of the miasma arising from the thick mangrove- 
swamps near the Coast." 

Of the soil and its productions he says: 

" It seems almost unnecessary to pronounce this soil prolific, 
extremely rich, and seemingly inexhaustibly productive. 

"The voluntaiy productions of the soil are almost fabulous. 
The palm-tree, that widely celebrated benefactor to man in 
tropical climes, is here in great abundance, and volunteers a 
utility that I have frequently thought approximates to indis- 
pensableness to both the native and the Americo-Liberian. 
Growing without cultivation, it supplies the lard, soap, butter, 
and a wholesome beverage, known as palm-wine, for domestic 
uses, while palm-kernel and oil furnished the principal staple for 
exportation. The cocoa, the bamboo, the pine-apple, the ma- 
hogany, the banana, the cam-wood, the orange, the bar-wood, 
the Calabar bean, the lime, (sweet and sour,) the sycamore, 
the black-gum, the custard-apple, the mangrove-plum, to- 
gether with a wide additional variety of fibrous and other 
trees of generous utility, grow voluntarily in profuse abun- 
dance and with great vigor. 

" The cultivation of the coffee-tree has been attempted within 
the last twenty years, and with great comparative success. 

"During the late disturbances in the United States the raising 
of cotton, on a not very extensive plan, was attempted by 
Liberians, and the fact established that very superior cotton 
can be produced from this soil and climate. 

"Sugar-cane is abundant, and thrives as finely as in the 
southern United States. 

"Two crops of corn may be produced in a year. In fine, we 
find here the most profuse luxuriant vegetation." 

** * * * * * ## 

"With reference to the mineral capacities of Liberia little is 



58 FIFTY-SIXTH ANNUAL EBPOET 

. Horace Maynard. 

known; however, it is certain that iron of good quality exists 
in large quantities. 

•■ Hon. II. i:. \V. Johnson, Secretary of State, informs me that 
the presence of gold is also a certainty. 

"The principal domesticated animals arc the bullock or 
. cows, sheep, geese, turkeys, ducks, and chickens." 

Mr. Turner sums up his review of the land audits resources 
with the following reflections: 

••This is a slmrt synopsis of the natural capacities of that 
part of the Wes1 African ('oast chosen by expatriated Ameri- 
cans for the purpose of planting upon these Bhores of Father- 
land the banner of untrammeled manhood, and of spreading 
among their still benighted brethren the softening influences 
of Christian light and love. 

■ l deem it unnecessary to say to the Department that there 
can be no radiating force - i potent in the civilizing and Chris- 
tianizing Africa as a < 'hristian commonwealth, a religious negro 
nationality, under the auspicious control of democratic institu- 
tion- of government. 

"Whatever may be the present condition of affairs in the 
Republic of Liberia, it must be admitted that Liberia has been 
signally instrumental in assisting to create upon this Coast 
what is destined soon to be the permanent confluence of Chris- 
tian civilization and heathenish superstition. It is now one- 
half century since, aided by Christian philanthropy, those 
forming the germ of what is now the Republic of Liberia 
; their traveled feet upon this territory, and about two 
and a half decades since, forced by increased responsibilities 
and growing interests, Liberia emerged from the colonial cru- 
cible into the more healthful atmosphere of national indepen- 
dence. From the beginning the people of Liberia zealously 
themselves to the attainment of the objects of their mis- 
sion. They not only planted the asylum they sought to found, 
but essentially aided in the effectual suppression of the Blave- 
trade along their Coast, and proved auxiliary to the propaga- 



AMEEICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 59 

Address of Hon. Horace Maynard. 

tion of Christian truth among the aborigines within their ter- 
ritory. They have framed the outline of a system by which 
to govern themselves." 

He criticizes when he cannot approve, and the general tem- 
per of his dispatch would indicate the criticism to be just. 
Of labor he says: 

"In the palmiest days the condition of the laborer in this 
country does not seem to me an enviable one. Male labor, 
for natives, rates from $2 to 84 per month, and for the expat- 
riated Americans, from $4 to $10 per month. Labor is sel- 
dom paid for in money, but in trade goods, such as tobacco, 
salt, fish, &c. 

"I may add, dry-goods, or any article of ordinary necessity, 
is procurable for labor. I regret to say that at no period of 
Liberia's history does agriculture seem to have been exten- 
sively engaged in. This is especially true, notwithstanding 
the great agricultural resources of the country, and the un- 
failing remuneration of this soil, together with the fact that 
Liberia has unquestionable facilities for and aspires zealously 
to be a commercial nation." 

The subject of schools arid education attracts notice: 

"Principally all the schools in the country are dependent 
on the generosity of Christian missions abroad. All the pri- 
mary schools that I have been privileged to meet are sadly 
deficient in the requisites of a successful, or would-be success- 
ful school. 

"None would deprive Liberia of beneficent and necessary aid 
from without, but all would have that aid so applied as to en- 
lighten the undebased manhood of the aborigine, and develop 
the latent energies of the civilized Liberian. 

"Past experience shows Liberia's need to be men, education, 
and wealth; these alone can give her sound policy and success- 
ful government. 

"To the attainment of these requisites the devoted energies 
and money of American philanthropists have been for fifty 



FIFTY SIXTB ANNUAL RBPOKT 

ffo . Hot at " ard. 

employed. What they have accomplished we have 

E 

>* * *. * * * # * 

" II is evident here, as elsewhere, that the beginning of 
civilization must be brought from foreign countries; but the 
superstructure must be erected of indigenous material. The 
completion of the work belongs to the indigenous inhab- 
itant himself. 

•■1 f future prosperity would be secured to this land, it- friends 
at home and abroad should apply their efforts to the improve- 
ment and incorporation into this State of the aborigines, rather 
than to indiscriminate accessions from abroad. 

"Thus they would establish :i confidence with surrounding 
tribes that would develop an interior commerce, Btretching to 
tin- gold mines and Arabic scholarship of the Mandingo tribe 
nf Mohammedan Africans, who Bhould, by all means, be incor- 
porated into the Liberian State. They now reside upon Libe- 
rian territory." 

tuation, climate, products, soil, and numerous peculiarities 
if the people and the country, conspire to evidence that 

II lanifestly not only intends the evangelization of Africa to 
i contemporaneous with her civilization, but that 

the 'man of these tropics must elevate the man of these 

• 

31 rvations of Mr. Turner, found in his dispatches, 
. in many respects with the information I had pre- 
viously obtained from Mr. Priest, a young Liberian now prose- 
cutin at Howard University. Less than fifteen 

thousand persons, all told, most of them emancipated slaves, 
from thin country as emigrants to Africa. 1 1 speaks 
volume- that tin- civilization which they carried with them has 
not been .-wallowed up in the degradation by « hich it has been 
surrounded. ( m the contrary, we have a higher and hotter 
•pment, extending it- influence over hundreds of thou- 
many miles around. 



AMEBIC AN COLONIZATION SOCIETY'. Gl 

Address of Hon. G. Washington Warren. 

Go on, sir, with your benevolent enterprise. Good will grow 
out of it, as it does out of all well-intended efforts — sonic good, 
if not that which we especially contemplate. Much you have 
accomplished; very much remains to be accomplished. It may 
be — who can tell — that the founders of t he Society have builded 
better than they knew, and that they have laid the founda- 
tions of a political structure coextensive with a race and a 
continent. This is your Fifty-Sixth Anniversary — fifty-six 
years from the feeble beginning — a long period in the life of 
the individual man; in the life of nations but as the tick of 
the clock, the unappreciable movement of the finger upon the 
dial-plate of time. 



ADDRESS OF HON. G. WASHINGTON WARREN. 

Mr. President : To trace the reciprocal influence of Africa and 
America upon each other in the past and future will become an 
interesting stud} 7 . These vast continents, occupying so large a 
space in opposite hemispheres, seem, as it were, to balance the 
globe. Ever since the discovery of the New World by Co- 
lumbus, the enterprising colonists of the different nations of 
Europe, in settling their new possessions, brought thither the 
(natives of Africa, to do for them the hardest and most menial la- 
bor. It was so in the new regions of South America, and it was 
so in the Thirteen British Colonies which dotted the Atlantic 
Coast: African toil worked in the mines, or cultivated the soil 
in the burning sun, for the benefit of the European colonists. 
When their labor was found unprofitable under a Northern 
sky, the native Africans became subjects of commerce, and 
equal profit was gained by those engaged in the slave-trade. 
This was the system fastened upon the American Colonies by 
the Mother Country. Under this condition of affairs, the 
United States achieved their independence; and yet. in their 
Constitution slavery was ignored, but at the same time the 
period in which the slave-trade should be prohibited was 
expressly postponed. In a few years, as slave labor and its 



FIFTY-SIXTH ANNUAL RBPOET 

t ; /t on War re 7i. 

became exceedingly remunerative, notwithstanding 
ave-trade had been denounced by law as piracy, the nat- 
ural increase of the slaves became formidable, so that in the 
different States, in many instances, slave owners, following the 
example of Washington, in their wills manumitted their 
slaves. By these means, and by the abolition of slavery in the 
Northern State-, a new class of people — the African freedmen 
— arose in tie- land. A cloud was discerned in the horizon, and 
fast gathering towards the zenith, which foreboded at some 
future day disaster to the young Republic. 

Fortunately for the country, in a little more than a quarter 
of a century alter the adoption of the Constitution of the 
United States the American Colonization Society was estab- 
lished. Its sole object was to colonize in Africa our own tree 
people of color, with their consent. No Africans had ever 
from their own shores to America of their own accord. 
They were all brought here by force, and sold into slavery. 
The object of this Society, faithfully pursued to the end, has 
always been to return these and their descendants who wished 
i to their fatherland. 

The heroism zeal, and marvellous success with which tile 
founders of the Society labored are without a parallel in his- 
tory. Upon its straightforward and honest platform, patri- 
otic men and statesmen of the country, without distinction 
of party, Bection, or sect, cordially worked together, keep- 
f their deliberations all extraneous issues, and refrain- 
• adiously from the exciting topics and controversies ol the 
day : their Bole aim and motive was the good of their country 
f the African race. By scrupulously following this conser- 
vative course, this Society founded a nation in Liberia; and in 
: her way could it have been done. More than that, this 

co-operation of eminent men from opposite sections Berved to 
cement a union of Bontiment and feeling conservative of the 
country. 

When the Government of the United States,4n enforcing 

the law against the -lav. -trade, captured a -lave-ship. it was 



AMEKICAN COLONIZATION" SOCIETY. G3 

Address of Hon. O. Washington Warren. 

in a dilemma what to do with the recaptured Africans. It 
surely could not keep them here, whither they were brought by 
force ; nor could it return them to Africa, with the liability 
of their being sold into slavery again. Then, in several in- 
stances, did this Society come to the aid of the Government, 
and with the means furnished by it placed them in Liberia, 
where, under the examples and instruction afforded them, 
they became good citizens. In this way, by the assent of the 
whole country, North and South, and thi'ough the agency 
of this Society, Liberia was strengthened, the slave-trade put 
down, and the Government extricated from an unpleasant 
predicament. 

The Presidents of this Society have been selected by general 
consent from the Southern States; they have been heartily 
seconded and sustained by eminent and conscientious men of 
the North. It is, sir, twenty-one years ago, that in the absence 
of your predecessor, Henry Clay, then President, Daniel 
Webster, one of the Yice Presidents, presided over this So- 
ciety at the Annual Meeting, and delivered an eloquent address, 
the last public address he delivered in Washington. In the 
year following, Edward Everett, who succeeded Mr. Webster 
as the premier in President Fillmore's Cabinet, addressed the 
Society, and in most eloquent terms portrayed its great achieve- 
ments in the success and growth of Liberia, as favorably com- 
pared with that of our Colonies for the same period of time in 
their early history. In that eloquent address, which enthralled 
so many by the spell of oratory, and which is still remembered 
by those who heard it, he touched with power upon the enor- 
mity of — what? the slave-trade, llad he from this place lisped 
a word upon the enormity of slavery — the result of the slave- 
trade — the political elements which kept the country in even 
balance, though all the while in suspense, would have been 
then convulsed. But the characteristic forbearance on that 
delicate topic, which sufficed twenty years ago, could not 
answer the purpose much longer. It was felt then that the 
bursting of the storm was a question of time only; and "the 



FIFTY-SIXTH AN MA I. REPORT 

H ■ :: 

probabilities" were then calculated on ;ill Bides, both at home 
and abroad. 

When thecollision did come, President Lincoln at first hand- 
led "the subject" quite tenderly. Ee recommended to Con- 
gress a scheme of general emancipation with compensation, 
and also a plan for the colonization of the freedmen. [f this 
recommendation had been at that time satisfactory to those 
who had taken ap arms against the Government, the treasure 
of the country would have been poured ou1 like water for it, 
and its unlimited credil would have been pledged in addition, 
while the seceding States would have been received with wel- 
come. 

Bui it was not in the order of Providence that this great 
consummation was by those means to be reached. It was by 
the mighty pen of Lincoln, and by the equally mighty sword 
of Grant, that slavery was abolished, and the limbs of the 
bondmen were set free, and the tongues of American citizens 
were loosened, so that slavery could be spoken of by every 
one and every where. 

When the civil strife was allayed, those who. from misrep- 
tations incessantly practiced upon them, had been led to 
believe that the Colonization Society, in doing its own work, 
and in abstaining from the outcry against slavery, was there- 
fore pro slavery, came to the illogical conclusion, that because 
Blavery is now abolished, the vocation of the Society is gone: 
that • ty is 1 he re tb re. in their opinion, dead, and ought 

to be buried. Tho Society resolutely declines that Bervice. 
\ !• was a greater mistake made by those who ignore the 
American Colonization Society. 

Now that all the ] pie of African descent in the United 

. the field of its labor is immensely enlarged. 
The harvest i »r Colonization is, indeed, plenty; but the labor- 
ers are few, and Bctfrce are it- means. 

But the argument is -till flippantly urged against the Colo- 
nization of tho freedmen in Africa, that the labor of so many 
able-bodied persons would be a loss to the public weal, and 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 65 



Address of Hon. O. Washington Warren. 



therefore it is the policy, and of course the duty, of the Govern- 
ment to discourage it in every way. But they who seek to 
keep those of African descent in this country, for the sake of 
their labor, against their wish to go to their fatherland, do 
but justify the conduct of those who forced their ancestors here 
by following the slave-trade. Besides, emigration and immi- 
gration follow natural laws. The United States, which has 
gained so much by immigration from other countries, ought not 
to object to the emigration of the comparatively few Freedmen 
who desire to go to the land of their ancestors. 

It is a sad mistake to suppose that this Society is operating 
adversely to the interests of the colored people. While those 
who believe that they are better off here will of course exer- 
cise their freedom of choice in remaining, it certainly cannot 
injure them or their prospects to know, that there is another 
and perhaps for them a better country to which the}' can 
repair — or at least their children or kindred — when disappoint- 
ment or misfortune may overtake them. No country was 
ever injured by establishing flourishing colonies in other parts. 
Rather the greatness and glory of a nation are measured by the 
number of such colonies she has fostered. These but widen the 
circle of intercourse and enlarge the sphere of influence of the 
mother country, and it is her own fault if she does not gain 
largely- by them. 

Nor is it necessary any longer for those speaking in behalf 
of this Society to urge upon the Freedmen reasons why they 
should seek Liberia. Already more persons have applied to 
go than the Society has the means of sending. Freedmen, in 
their ardent desire to go, have petitioned the President of the 
United States that the Government would furnish them trans- 
portation to Liberia. Nor is it strange that the wonderful 
instinct of that sagacious people, which told them, somehow, 
when shut out from all intercourse with the outside world, of 
the great war waging for their freedom, and which prompted 
them in various artful ways to assist the Government, should 
now impel many of them to ask of the head of the nation, 
5 



I li l\ M\ I II ANNUAL REP0E1 

I 

they naturally look up as their deliverer, for the 
i of their going to the African Republic^the home of 
their eho 

President of the United States has, in his lasl annual 

. ge, recommended to Congress a liberal appropriation for 

ilar mail communication by Bteamships vvitb foreign na- 

for the promotion of commerce and amity with them, and 

for the maintenance of an efficient mercantile marine of the 

first class, available to the Government in any emergency; 

and it cannot be doubted that a subsidy to this Society, to enable 

it to maintain frequent mail communication with Liberia, am! 

to furnish transportation to those who desire t«» colonize there, 

would inert his approval. This Society, which, unaided by the 

rnment,has founded the Liberian nation, and has expended 

more than a million of dollars in colonizing and sustaining it. 

may well make Buch a claim of Congress, with a reasonable 

station that it will be granted. Congress may well be 

assured, that while subsidies granted to other organizations 

will necessarily be a source of individual profi .tent. 

dollar granted to this Society w ill inure to the benefit 

of tie ten and of the public. 

In this matter of mail steamship communication, the Gov- 

erument of the United States is far behind that of Great Britain 

and of other nations. Greal Britain enables, by subsidies, 

private companies to send a weekly line of steamers t" the 

of Africa, which touch at Liberia. In fact, by 

jtal treaty, the mail- between Liberia and America goby 

amers, and then by the British steamships between 

and and the United States I li dit to this country 

that she is dependent upon Greal Britain for mail communi- 

m with her ow n ( iolony. and by such a circuitous route. 

at Britain, France, and Germany are getting 

-t a new. the valuable trade with the Western 

United States might and should 

• the chief share. It follows, that those countries have a 

greater knowledge of the mean-, resources, and staple products 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. G7 

Address of Hon. G. Washington Warren. 

of that region, than is readily obtained here. As a matter of 
commercial policy, without regard to Colonization, it would be 
desirable for us to have our own channels of communication, 
which should be direct, frequent, and regular. Commerce and 
trade always increase with the facilities extended. By fre- 
quent communication with Liberia, she would be stimulated to 
multiply her productions, and she would develop new wants 
for us to supply. 

If Congress will make an appropriation sufficient to enable 
the Society to send a steamship every month, or even twice a 
month, to Liberia, from the thousands now desiring to go, it 
could select for each trip those most fit, and the present sup- 
ply would not be exhausted in a year. New applications 
would be made, and from the frequent passages, recurring at 
regular and short intervals, the intercourse that would be 
promoted between tbe colored people of the United States and 
of Liberia would be a great benefit to both countries. 

There is a peculiar fitness and propriety in Congress making 
the proposed grant, if there be no moral obligation. The cost 
would be trifling compared with the object attained. Mr. 
Webster at one time declared that ho would be willing to set 
apart the whole proceeds of the public lands, if it were neces- 
sary, for so desirable a purpose. 

In a short time the colored people who might wish to go 
would be able to pay a reasonable rate for their own trans- 
portation, and the opportunity offered to Liberians to revisit 
this country, for the purposes of trade, would be availed of, 
and so in a few years the African steamship line would be 
self-sustaining. In the meantime, should Congress lend a gen- 
erous aid, larger donations and benefactions would come from 
private sources, as the beneficial results would be more appar- 
ent, in this way the United States would regain her prestige 
on the Western Coast of Africa. 

In this way America may, under Heaven, be the means oi 
requiting Africa for the service of millions of her race during 
the past three centuries. And Liberia, taking from us our 



FIFTY-SIX 111 A V\r.\l. KKI'MiiT. 



Q h i n g t on Wa rren. 



language and literature, our form of government, the spirit of 
our laws, our civil and religious institutions, the model of our 
;. I Bchools, and, above all, an ingrained hatred of 
slavery, ami keeping it- race pure and unmixed, may become 
the salt of Africa, wherewith the benighted people of that vast 
( Jontinent may I >■ preserved for a nobler and a Christian ami 
civilized life. 



MINUTES 

OF THE 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS 



Washington, D. C, January 21, 1873. 

The Board of Directors of The American Colonization 
Society met this day at 12 o'clock m., in their Booms in the 
Colonization Building, 450 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, 
D. C. 

The President of the Society, Hon. John H. B. Latrobe, took 
the Chair; and prayer was offered by the Bev. Samuel D. 
Alexander, D. D., of New York. 

At the request of the Board, Mr. William Coppinger con- 
sented to act as Secretary. 

The Bev. Dr. Maclean, Mr. Merwin, and Dion. Mr. Parker 
were appointed a Committee on Credentials. 

On motion of Hon. Mr. Parker, it was 

Resolved, That the Rev. E. P. Humphrey, D. D., of Louisville, Ky., and 
Rev. R. H. Nassau, M. D., of the Corisco Presbyterian Mission, West Africa, 
be invited to sit as Corresponding Members of the Board. 

On motion, it was 

Resolved, That the reading of the Minutes of the Board, January 16 and 
17, 1872, be dispensed with. 

A letter was read from the Bev. William McLain, D. D., Fi- 
nancial Secretary and Treasurer, and also a Life Director of 
the Society, dated Washington, D. C, January 21, stating 
that severe sickness prevented him the privilege of meet- 
ing with the Board — the first time "but one since the year 
1840." 



7d FIFTY-SIXTB ANNI'AI. REPORT 

miliary Societies . 

1. : - excusing themselves from attendance on this meet- 
read from 1><- S. M. Buckingham, Esq., 
- V Y., January 18; and from Life Directors Rev. 
Henry C. Potter, I>. If. New York City, January 7 ; Daniel 
P . Esq., Newark, N. J., January IS; and Rev. William II. 
. 1». 1)., Newark, N. J., January 18 j the latter Btating 
'• It would afford a great gladness to my heart t<> see the 
ty receive $25,000 by a day early enough to lit <>ut a large 
selection from the numbers eager ami tit to go in May. 1 
should be grateful to < rod for the privilege of being one of fifty 
I i each, and will hold myself in readiness to i 
she conditions until the lsl of .March. Church claims arc in- 
stant and prospective, and this is my reason for coupling 
amount and time." 

W . sreupon, on motion, it was 

the generous offer of the Rev. Dr. Steele be referred to the 
immittee ou Finance. 

ras stated that the Rev. William F. Morgan, l>. D., a 
I ate from the New York Colonization Society, was pre- 

vented from attending by sudden and unavoidable parochial 
dut: 

The Rev. Dr Mai-Nan. as Chairman of the Special Commit- 
I d Credentials, presented and read a Report, which was, on 
motion, accepted and approved ; and the roll of D from 

Auxiliary 9, with the Life Directors and Members of 

the Executive Committee in attendance, was completed, as 

Delegates Appointed by Auxiliary Societies for 1873. 

. — Hon. Lake P. Poland, 4 I thing- 

. . John K. Converse.* 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 71 

Life Directors and Executive Committee Present. 

Massachusetts Colonization Society. — Hon. G. Washington Warren, 
Rev. John W. Chickering, D. D , Rev. Dudley C. Haynes,* Dr. Henry Lyon. 

New York Colonization Society. — Rev. Samuel D. Alexander, D. !>., 
Rev. William F. Morgan, D. D. * Almon Merwin, Esq., Samuel M. Bucking- 
ham, Esq.* Dr. Theodore L. Mason, Jacob D. Vermilye. Esq.* 

New Jersey Colonization Society. — Hon. Dudley S. Gregory, Col. Mor- 
gan L. Smith. 

Pennsylvania Colonization Society. — Rev. Samuel E. Appleton. 

Life Directors Present. — Rev. John Maclean, D. D., LL. D., Rev. John 
Orcutt, D. D., Prof. Joseph Henry, LL. D., Dr. Charles II. Nichols, Rev. I 
mm I. Haight, D. D. 

Executive Committee Present. — Dr. Harvey Lindsly, Joseph H. Brad- 
ley, Esq., William Gunton, Esq., Hon. Peter Parker, lion. Samuel H. 
Huntington, Hon. John B. Kerr. 

The Corresponding Secretary presented and read the Fifty- 
Sixth Annual Report of the Society. 

Mr. Bradley, from the Executive Committee of the Society, 
presented and read the Annual Statement of the Executive 
Committee for the past year. Ho also submitted the Treasu- 
rer's Report for 1872, and other financial papers. 

It was moved by the Rev. Dr. Haight that an additional 
Standing Committee, to be known as the Committee on Educa- 
tion, be raised; and on the question being put, it was unani- 
mously adopted. 

On motion, it was 

Resolved, That so much of the Annual Report and of the 
Executive Committee, with the accompanying papers, as relate to I 
Relations, Finance, Auxiliary Societies, Agencies, Accounts, Emigi 
and Education, be referred to the several Standing Committees in c ;irge of 
these subjects respectively. 

The Chair appointed the Standing Committees as follows: 

Committee on Foreign Relations. — Rev. John Maclean, D. 1>., LL. D., 
Hon. Peter Parker, Hon. Dudley S. Gregory. 

*Not present. 



72 FIFTY SIXTH A \ \ r \l. REPORT 

i ■ ■ 

i Washington Warren, William Ounton, 
. I. Smith. 

1:1 1 Ircntt, D. D., Hon. John 
D. D. 

; leton, Dr. Harv . 

— Almon Merwin, E9q., Rev. John W. ('Muckering, 
. , LL. D. 

(ratios. — Joseph H. I benjamin I. 

t, D. D., Dr. Henry 1 

nain I Haif 

I 1 1»., Hon. Da egory. 

< In motioD, it was 

• appointed. I ent I.atrobe, 

Haight, and Ho n. Mr. Parker, to prepare a minute that shall express 

] iltii Randolph Gm li 

The Rev. Mr. Appleton submitted a letter from the Rev. 
mas S, Malcom, Corresponding Secretary of the Pennsyl- 
vania Colonization Society, dated Philadelphia, January 18, 
wing copy of a correspondence which he recently had 
with Senator Ramsey, touching the negotiation of a ] 

tween the Governments of the United States and of 
ria; which, on motion of Mr. Appleton, was referred to 
the Standing Committee on Foreign Relations. 

< Mi iii'.t ion, it. Was 

:amittee be appointed to nominate the Secretarii 

R .. Mr. Appleton, Rev. Dr. Chickering, and Dr. Mason 
appointed the ( lommi I 

< mi motion, it w 

; . do now adjourn until 10 o'clock to-morrow 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



Report of Committee on Education 



Colonization Building, January 22, 1873. 

The Board of Directors met this morning, pursuant to ad- 
journment, the President in the Chair. 

The Divine blessing was invoked by the Eev. Dr. Benjamin 
I. Ilaight, D. D., of New York. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 

Mr. Merwin, as Chairman of the Standing Committee on 

Accounts, presented and read the following Report; which was, 

on motion, accepted and approved : 

The Committee appointed to examine the accounts of the American Colo- 
nization Society, find the books neatly and accurately kept, and the several 
charges have a corresponding voucher. In addition to this, it appears that 
the Executive Committee frequently inspect the Books of the Society, and 
at the close of the financial year they certify that the books have been cor- 
rectly kept. 

The Eev. Dr. Ilaight, as Chairman of the Standing Commit- 
tee on Education, presented and read the following Report; 
which was, on motion, accepted and approved, and the accom- 
panying resolution was adopted: 

The Standing Committee on Education beg leave to report, that the portion 
of the Annual Report referred to them is of great importance; and in regard 
to the next Report, they recommend the adoption by the Board of Directors of 
the following resolution : 

Resolved, That the Executive Committee be requested to present as full a 
statement in the next Annual Report as can be conveniently prepared, of the 
whole educational system of Liberia, embracing the following and like points, 
viz : The number of schools, their respective grades, studies, number of teach- 
ers, number of scholars, average attendance of scholars. 

The Eev. Mr. Appleton, as Chairman of the Special Com- 
mitee on Nomination of the Secretaries and Executive Com- 
mittee, presented and read the following Report: 

The Committee on Nominations recommend the re-election of the follow- 
ing gentlemen as Secretaries and members of the Executive Committee, viz : 
Financial Secretary and Treasurer. — Rev. William McLain, D. D. 
Travelling Secretary. — Rev. John Orcutt, D. D. 
Corresponding and Recording Secretary. — William Coppinger. 



74 FIFTY-SIXTH .\ N M I A I. REPOKT 

R . R. • 

tfMiTTEE. — llarv M. D., Joseph H. Br 

II in. Peter Parker, Hon. John B.Kerr, Dr. Charles 

latter in place of the Hon. 
in, who declines a re-election. 

When upon, on motion, it was 

i approved, and that the Board 
t by the Committee. 

The Rev l>r. Eaight, from the Special ( lommittee to prepare 
a minute in regard to the death of Mr. Gurley, presented and 
read the following Report; which was, on motion, accepted and 
approved, and the accompanying resolution was adopted: 

The Special Commits lit a proper minute touching the 

death of the late much-' I - Jph Randolph Gurley, 

beg leave to report: That inasmuch as the resolutions, &c., adopted by the 
Executive Committee, the article in the African 1. v, the notice in the 

Annual Report, and the Memorial Diseourseof D: 

. ed at the request of tl ive Committee, form part of the r< 

and documents of this Society, it does i able to make an- 

: irmal entry upon our minul ing Mr. Gurley. Rut your Corn- 

opinion that we owe it to ourselves and to tl 

i honor, to tak. 11 per- 

to future g( : md to lead our children and our 

inquire of whom is t; • 

.low-men? They therefore propose for adoption the 
.;on: 

mmittee of seven cure by Bub 

tion a Mr. < rurley, or 

. by this 
. ability, tl 

Mr. Warren, Hon. Mr Mr. Apple- 

ton, Hon. Mr. 1 1 »r. Haigl 1 the 

Comn.. 

The Rev. Dr. Maclean, as Chairman of the Standing Com- 
mittee on Foreign Relations, presented and read the following 
Report : which was, on motion, accepted and approved, and the 
mpanying resolutions were adopted: 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 75 

Report of Committee on Foreign Relations. 

The Corresponding Secretary of the Pennsylvania Colonization Society, 
having submitted to this Board certain papers in reference to the subject of a 
postal treaty between the United States and Liberia, and these papers having 
been referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations for examination and 
report thereon, the Committee re-pectfully recommend the adoption of the fol- 
lowing resolutions: 

1. Resolved, That in the judgment of this Board it is highly desirable that 
an arrangement should be made by which the transmission of letters and 
other mail matter between the United State3 and Liberia may be effected at 
the lowest possible expense and at uniform rates. 

2. Resolved, That it be respectfully suggested to the Liberia authorities, 
that the most likely method of obtaining such a result will be a proposal on 
their part, to the Government of the United States, to form a postal treaty for 
the two countries. 

3. Resolved, That a Committee be appointed to wait upon the Postmaster 
General, and request him to make such recommendations to Congress as he 
may deem practicable, for establishing direct mail communication between 
this country and Liberia. 

4. Resolved, That a copy of the foregoing resolutions be sent to the Libe- 
ria Government by the Corresponding Secretary of the Society. 

5. Resolved, That a copy of the above resolutions be sent to the honorable 
the Secretary of State for his information, and that he be most respectfully 
requested to instruct the Minister Resident from the United States in Liberia to 
confer with the Liberian authorities on the subject above presented. 

The following were appointed the Committee under the 
third resolution, viz: President Latrobe, and Messrs. Warren, 
Gregory, Merwin, and Rev. Mr. Nassau. 

Rev. Mr. Appleton, as Chairman of the Standing Committee 
on Agencies, presented and read the following Eeport; which 
was, on motion, accepted and approved, and the accompany- 
ing resolution was adopted, viz : 

The Committee on Agencies find that the Society is greatly in need of the 
means to carry on its operations on a scale so urgently demanded alike by 
the three thousand (3,000) voluntary and earnest applications by Am 
people of color for passage to Liberia and for homes there now registered; 
and by the one hundred millions of heathen in Africa, whose benighted con- 
dition appeals for missionary aid with as many trumpet-tongues to every 
enlightened Christian sensibility. As a productive, commercial, and mission- 



76 Kl FT V SIXTH ANN I A I. REPOET 



'i m it tee on 



ition of Africa b vomen, bn d 

ristian civilization and in tl at arts 

..•ulture and mecl of more than national — it is of continental 

lone. The appropriate agents are ready to engage in this grand work 

in numbers proportioned to its immense magnitude. The means to carry it 

forward is all that is qow want 

If .m able, earnest agent in every State and Territory of the Republic 
shoul i 3 entire time to setting forth, to all cl I in all lights, 

d importance of the work in which we are engaged, we do 
not doubt that I into our treasury would be increased a thousand- 

fold: and we therefore beg I to the many direct appeals that have 

been made to the public mind in behalf of our can-- We ask Christian men, 
benevolent men, commercial men, and statesmen to contribute of their sub- 
to enable us to carry on this work. We can confidently assure them 
that, in the spread of Christian civilization, in the ameliorated condition of 
the children of xVfrica, in the extension of profitable trade, and in our own 
national aggrandizement, every dollar spent in this work will yield a rich 
return. The Committee recommend the passage of the following resolution : 

t we earnestly recommend the Executive Committee to con- 
tinue their endeavors to secure the services of earnest agents to arouse the 
public mind in behalf of the work of our Society, and to obtain more enlarged 
- to carry it on. 

The Rev. Dr. Orcutt, as Chairman of the Standing Com- 
mitter on Auxiliary Societies, presented and read the follow- 
ing Report j which was, on motion, accepted and approved : 

lttee on Auxiliary Societies beg leave to report, that some steps 

luring the year to organize a branch of this Society in the 

District mbia, which will probably be effected at no distant day. 

Further than tins, they simply recommend the indorsement of the report on 

■ ir. 

Col. Morgan L. Smith offered the following, and the resolu- 
tion was adop 

Whebi as, While slavery was protected by the Constitution of the C 

civil, political, and benevolent motives induced many persons to advo- 

of less importance now that the 
colore I ted ; and 

I has given freedom of thought and action for a great and 
wise purpose to four millioi. . .mis of Africa, whose training and 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 77 

Report of Committee on Emigration. 

physical structure peculiarly adapt them to the great work of civilizing and 
evangelizing that land ; and 

Whereas, In the purpose of His sovereign will, the time to realize His 
word maybe at hand, "when Ethiopia shall stretch out her hands unto 
God ; " therefore, 

Resolved, That, in the opinion of the Board, the efforts of the American 
Colonization Society must be more earnestly directed than ever to provide 
increasing facilities for the industrial and educational advancement of the 
colonists, while the appeal of those desiring to emigrate must be made 
with renewed energy to the varied Christian churches and the benevolent 
world, for the means of evangelizing the continent of Africa. 

Mr. Bradley, as Chairman of the Standing Committee on 
Emigration, presented and read the following Report; which 
was, on motion, accepted and approved, and the accompany- 
ing resolution was adopted: 

The Committee to whom was referred so much of the Annual Report as 
touches emigration submit the following report : 

There is nothing new and occurring since the last meeting of the Society 
calling for special notice, except increasing and very earnest applications 
from or on behalf of useful citizens for aid to enable them to emigrate. The 
fact seems to be obtaining its proper influence among the colored population, 
that this Society is no longer in its proper sense a colonization society, but 
by the establishment of the Nation of Liberia, and the freedom with which 
citizenship is given to emigrants to that country, the Society has become, to 
all essential purposes, an emigrant aid society, while, to a certain extent and 
for certain purposes only, it retains its original powers for colonization pur- 
poses. Another prominent fact seems to have spread its influence among 
the colored people, and that is, that Liberia is exclusively the black man's 
country, into which no white man can intrude, except as a stranger or as 
a denizen. 

These two prominent and material facts are working most favorably ai 
the colored people, while the question of labor and their present condition in 
this country co-operate with these, and lead them to inquire for and seek this 
better land. 

Misapprehensions of fact, and we have great reason to fear willfu 
malicious misstatements of fact, have long interfered with and obstrm 
beneficent operations of the Society and tended to retard emigration, and 
especially the emigration of educated, Christian people, such as 
carry with them skilled labor and machinery adapted to a new country, so 



7- I'll -TV SIX I'll ANNUAL REPORT 



. ■ 



il and vegetable products, which on! 

-fully 
rid. 
ition of thinj 
ad correcting the I of the So- 

t he colored people by publ I 
written by intelligent emigrants, which, reaching the comu. 
■ known, carries conviction not only of the truth ol 
bat of the freedom from prejudice or party considerati 

in great measure are to be attribn time 

la of three i ty to aid i 

efforts to reach this growinj 

What shall we .ken an interest and arouse the benevolence of 

to enable us, by their contributions, to take these peo- 
rth their hai 

It L;i. i neral 

1 by the people, the rights of every colored man are securely pro- 
tected. Re! i Is her mantle over it. Morality, equal at . 
: this Union, cements the bonds of society. 
I to all, is elevating the whole people. reading hei 
e earth is made with little labor to yield superabundant returns to 

lerce. 
But the Coloniz is not completed its mission. It is to build 

>'.e, not with the of the Caucasian race, 

\ tension of a nan I and yet in its gristle, and in 

th; hut with 
. bred in the school of the white man, imbued with both his vices 
reformed by nature to live and thrive in this region, so 
white race. 
. — active, intelligent, edncat I 

the tidal v, 
continent of 
igrants, not nn I 
: u offence, . 

■ rk. 

.erne for the collection of 

nnot refrain 

. that, if these facts were brought 

throughout the land, 

I them to combined efforts 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 7D 

Report of Committee on Finance. 

And we submit the following resolution: 

Resolved, That we earnestly recommend the Executive Committee to take 
such prompt and active measures as will at the earliest period spread through 
the country such facts touching the need of more and better emigrants to 
build up and enlarge the State of Liberia, and more active efforts of Christian 
love and charity for the relief of those now seeking to emigrate to that 
country. 

The appointed hour having arrived for the meeting of the 
Society, the Board took a recess, and after a few minutes 
resumed its session. 

On motion of Rev. Mr. Appleton, it was 

Resolved, That this Board sincerely sympathizes with our Financial Secre- 
tary and Treasurer in his present infirmities, and deeply regrets his inability 
to be present at the Annual Meeting of this Board, trusting that he will soon 
be blessed with improved health and strength. 

Resolved, That a copy of this resolution be sent to the Rev. Dr. McLain by 
the Secretary. 

The Rev. Dr. Maclean, as Chairman of the Standing Com- 
mittee on Foreign Relations, reported verbally, that in their 
judgment there was no additional business in the papers re- 
ferred to them calling for action at this time. 

Hon. Mr. Warren, as Chairman of the Standing Committee 
on Finance, presented and read the following Report ; which 
was, on motion, accepted and approved: 

The Committee on Finance beg leave to present their Report : In the pres- 
ent need of the Society, where there is so much for it to do beyond the means 
at hand, the Committee do not find that they can add anything to the report 
adopted at the last Annual Meeting. All measures that can be devi- 
the raising of money should be adopted. The Executive Committee will un- 
doubtedly adopt every expedient for supplying the necessary means to carry 
on the great work. 

The Committee would especially call attention to the liberal offer made in the 
communication of Rev. Dr. Steele, proposing to be one of fifty to contribute 
the sum of twenty-five thousand dollars, ($25,000.) It is very desirable that 
this noble offer be availed of, and that the number be made up in time. 

The Committee look forward with hope to the proposed application to Con- 



80 FIFTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT. 

A n I u t i o n s of Th a n h s . 

them ans it may obtain the more 

benevolence, to establish d 

try and Liberia, from which a more frequent, regular, and 

: those anxious to emigrate thither will ensue. It is singular 

le a scheme has been so long delayed. The country has 

greatly by the loss of commerce with the Western Coast of 

Africa, which other nations have taken almost entirely from us But it is 

not too late to regain cur prestige, and to foster more intimate and also more 

ns with our own Colony, now the independent Nation of 

Liberia. 

a this shall be done a new era will have dawned upon our enterprise. 

All doubts of the permanent good effected by this Society, and of the ne- 

of its continuance for the accomplishment of still greater good, will 

( )n motion, it was 

That the Annual Report be referred to the Executive Committee 
for publication. 

On motion of Rev. Mi-. Appleton, it was 

That the thanks of the Board be tendered to our President, for 
the able and dignified manner in which he has presided on this occasion. 

• our thanks be tendered to the Secretary, for his efficient and 
i gable ser\ 

< Mi motion, it was 

R after the reading of the minutes of to-day and devotional 

servie- ird adjourn, to meet at this place on the third Tuea 

January, 1874, at 12 o'clock m. 

The minutes were read and approved. 
The Board united in prayer, led by the Rev. J»r. Maclean, 
and then adjourned. 

W.m. ( Ioppinoer, Secretary. 



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